Civil Rights

Civil Rights
Adams-Ender, Clara
by Pollitt, Phoebe Ann. Originally published in "North Carolina Nursing History." Republished with permission. For personal educational use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other uses [...] (from Appalachian State University.)
Adkin High School Walkout (1951) 
by . Adkin High School Walkout 1951  Kinston, NC by the North Carolina Arts Council.  Originally published in African American Music Trails of Eastern North Carolina, copyright [...] (from North Carolina Arts Council.)
African Americans - Part 3: Emancipation
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 4: Segregation
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Angelou, Maya
by Horton, Emily S. Maya Angelou was best known as a poet and the best-selling author of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1970). Angelou was also a singer, dancer, Grammy-winning composer, director, and actress. She was [...] (from NCpedia.)
Atwater, Ann George
by Carrier, Sarah. Ann George Atwater was a lifelong grassroots civil rights activist in Durham, North Carolina. She was born in Hallsboro, Columbus County on July 1, 1935. As a child, she attended the Farmers’ Union [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Baker, Ella
by Townes, Mitzi. Ella Baker was born on December 13, 1903 in Norfolk , Va. When Ella was eight years old her family moved to Littleton, North Carolina. In 1918, Ella Baker entered Shaw University, a Baptist boarding [...] (from NCpedia.)
Basketball - Part iv: Basketball and Civil Rights
by Simpson-Vos, Mark. Men's college basketball in the state underwent another dramatic transformation beginning in the late 1960s, when previously all-white college teams began recruiting black players. Prior to and after [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bethea-Shields, Karen: In Joan Little's Cell
by Cecelski, David S. On the day she passed her bar exam in 1974, Karen Galloway, now Karen Bethea-Shields, was named co-counsel in the first-degree murder trial of Joan Little. It became one of the most controversial [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Browne, Rose Butler
by Hill, Michael. The name of Rose Butler Browne is venerated on the campus of North Carolina Central University (NCCU). Born in Boston in 1897, Browne was an influential educator, civil rights activist, and community [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Cannady, Mary: At Dr. King's House
by Cecelski, David S. Mary Cannady was 50 years old in 1965 when three civil rights activists were killed in Alabama. The deaths of Jimmie Lee Jackson, the Rev. James Reeb and Viola Liuzzo shocked the nation, including [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Chance, William Claudius, Sr.
by Caldwell, John T. William Claudius Chance, Sr., educator and humanitarian, was born in Parmele. His parents were W. V. and Alice Chance; his grandparents, who reared him, were Bryant and Penethia Chance; all were [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Chapman, John Kenyon (Yonni)
by . John Kenyon Chapman, known as Yonni, was a life-long social justice activist, organizer, and historian who focused his academic and social career on workers' rights and African American empowerment [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Chesnutt, Charles Waddell
by Andrews, William L. Chesnutt, Charles Waddell by William L. Andrews, 1979 20 June 1858–15 Nov. 1932 Charles Waddell Chesnutt, writer, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the first child of Andrew Jackson Chesnutt and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Civil Rights in North Carolina
by Brown, Flora Bryant. African American Civil Rights in North Carolina by Dr. Flora Bryant Brown Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2004. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Civil Rights Movement- Part 2: Roots of Civil Rights Activism in North Carolina
by Price, William S., Jr., Criner, Allyson C. Part 1: Introduction; Part 2: Roots of Civil Rights Activism in North Carolina; Part 3: Brown v. Board of Education and White Resistance to School Desegregation; Part 4: Integration Efforts in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Civil Rights Movement- Part 3: Brown v. Board of Education and White Resistance to School Desegregation
by Powell, William S., Criner, Allyson C. Part 1: Introduction; Part 2: Roots of Civil Rights Activism in North Carolina; Part 3: Brown v. Board of Education and White Resistance to School Desegregation; Part 4: Integration Efforts in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Civil Rights Movement- Part 4: Integration Efforts in the Workplace, Sit-Ins, and Other Nonviolent Protests
by Powell, William S., Criner, Allyson C. Part 1: Introduction; Part 2: Roots of Civil Rights Activism in North Carolina; Part 3: Brown v. Board of Education and White Resistance to School Desegregation; Part 4: Integration Efforts in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Civil Rights Movement- Part 5: Forced School Desegregation and the Rise of the Black Power Movement
by Powell, William S., Criner, Allyson C. Part 1: Introduction; Part 2: Roots of Civil Rights Activism in North Carolina; Part 3: Brown v. Board of Education and White Resistance to School Desegregation; Part 4: Integration Efforts in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Civil Rights Movement- Part 6: Continued Civil Rights Battles in the State
by Powell, William S., Criner, Allyson C. Part 1: Introduction; Part 2: Roots of Civil Rights Activism in North Carolina; Part 3: Brown v. Board of Education and White Resistance to School Desegregation; Part 4: Integration Efforts in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Civil Rights Sit-Ins
by McDermott, Nancie. A hot dog got it all started—the hot dog that Joe McNeil did not get to eat one day in January 1960. Nineteen years old and a graduate of Williston High School in Wilmington, McNeil was a student at [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Commission on Interracial Cooperation
by Williams, Wiley J. The Commission on Interracial Cooperation (CIC), founded in 1919 with support from the Julius Rosenwald Fund and based in Atlanta, was dedicated to the improvement of race relations in the South. In [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Committee for Economic and Racial Justice
by Williams, Wiley J. The Committee for Economic and Racial Justice was established in February 1934 by a group of like-minded social activists following their resignation from the Fellowship of Reconciliation, a pacifist [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Congress of Racial Equality
by Gavins, Raymond. The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), founded in Chicago in 1942, crusaded for equality through nonviolence and integration. It came to North Carolina on a 1947 southern bus during a "Journey of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Constitutional Convention, 1868: "Black Caucus"
by Ijames, Earl. During the antebellum era—the years leading up to the Civil War—North Carolina’s population of free people of color blossomed. This group included American Indians, African Americans, and Americans [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Davis, Kenny: It's Like Being At War
by Cecelski, David S. I met Kenny Davis during the recent commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Wilmington race riot of 1898. A century ago, on Nov. 10, 1898, a white mob massacred many blacks and seized the city [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Death to the Klan March
by Schutz, J. Christopher, Stoesen, Alexander R. The "Death to the Klan" March, which took place in Greensboro in late 1979, involved a violent showdown between members of the Communist Workers Party (CWP), the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), and a neo-Nazi [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Dixiecrats
by Holden, Charles J. Dixiecrats, officially members of the States' Rights Democratic Party, formed after the 1947 publication of President Harry S Truman's Committee on Civil Rights report, To Secure These Rights. This [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Dred
by Inscoe, John C. Dred, published in 1856, was Harriet Beecher Stowe's much-anticipated sequel to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) in which she sought to further fan the flames of antislavery sentiment. The book was a [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Election Law
by Criner, Allyson C., Heiser, Will M., Smith, David C. Election Law in North Carolina has seen significant changes over the years. During early statehood, the governor and two U.S. senators were appointed by the General Assembly, while the other major [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Emancipation Day
by Towles, Louis P. Emancipation Day by Louis P. Towles, 2006 Emancipation Day in North Carolina was initiated on 1 Jan. 1865 at Union-occupied New [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Equal Rights League
by Justesen, Benjamin R. The North Carolina State Equal Rights League, founded in 1865, grew out of the state's first freedmen's convention, held in Raleigh on 29 Sept. 1865. Although the state was ruled by Presidential [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Ervin, Samuel James, Jr.
by Ducey, Mitchell F. Ervin, Samuel James, Jr. by Mitchell F. Ducey, 1986 27 Sept. 1896–23 Apr. 1985 Samuel James Ervin, Jr., lawyer, jurist, legislator, congressman, and United States senator, was descended from [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Eugenics Board
by Belton, Tom. The North Carolina Eugenics Board, operating under the theories of the science of eugenics, or racial improvement through selective breeding, began its work in 1933 after the General Assembly passed [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Forbes, David: The Birth of the SNCC
by Cecelski, David S. Two months earlier, on Feb. 1, 1960, four black students at North Carolina A&T sat down at a "whites only" lunch counter at a Woolworth's Department Store in Greensboro. They politely requested [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Freedmen's Bureau
by Alexander, Roberta Sue. The Freedmen's Bureau, officially the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, was created by Congress in 1865 after months of debate. The Freedmen's Bureau controlled abandoned and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freedmen's Conventions
by Jones, H. G. Freedmen's conventions in 1865 and 1866 voiced the aspirations of North Carolina blacks, both those previously classified as free and former slaves. The Civil War had been over only five months when [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freedom Rallies: Williamston, N.C., 1963
by Hill, Michael. Freedom Rallies: Williamston, N.C., 1963 By Michael Hill Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Frinks, Golden
by Spicer, Shirl. With fists raised, members of the audience paid homage to “The Great Agitator” on July 24, 2004, as North Carolina laid to rest one of its greatest unsung heroes of the Civil Rights movement—Golden [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Grant, Gary: A Boy Scout Jamboree to Remember
by Cecelski, David S. I visited with Gary Grant in Tillery, a rural, African-American community in Halifax County, 100 miles northeast of Raleigh. Raised in an experimental resettlement community in Tillery in which FDR's [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Greensboro Four
by Huaman, Jaime. Greensboro Four: David Richmond, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair Jr. (Jibreel Khazan), Joe McNeil Civil Rights Sit-Ins at Woolworth by Jaime Huaman, Government & Heritage Library, [...] (from NCpedia.)
Greensboro Sit-Ins
by Stoesen, Alexander R. Greensboro Sit-Ins by Alexander R. Stoesen, 2006 See also: Greensboro Four, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hammocks Beach State Park
by Agan, Kelly. Hammocks Beach State Park By North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, 2015; Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2015 http://ncparks.gov/ Established: 1961 GPS [...] (from NC Division of Parks and Recreation, NC Dept. of Natural and Cultural Resources.)
Harris, James Henry
by Alexander, Roberta Sue. James Henry Harris, North Carolina politician, was born in Granville County. Described as "a base born boy of color," he was apprenticed on 3 Aug. 1840 to Charles Allen to learn the carpenter trade; [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hawkins, Reginald Armistice
by Carrier, Sarah. Dr. Reginald Armistice Hawkins, nicknamed “Hawk,” was a lifelong civil rights activist who played a central role in integrating Charlotte schools, hospitals, and public spaces, and in 1968 became the [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Holton, Tabitha Anne
by Mitchell, Memory F. Tabitha Anne Holton, first woman licensed to practice law in North Carolina, was born in Guilford County, the daughter of the Reverend Quinton (5 Feb. 1818–5 May 1890) and Harriet Jacobina Holland [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Johnson Jr., Henry Vanderbilt: The Engelhard Cafe
by Cecelski, David S. Recently, Dr. Henry Vanderbilt Johnson Jr. shared a story with me about an unsung little moment in our state's civil rights history: a cafe brawl in Engelhard, a fishing village in Hyde County. The [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Jones Lake State Park
by . Jones Lake State Park By North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, 2015 http://ncparks.gov/ Established: 1939 GPS Coordinates: 34.682743, -78.595423 Size: 1,669 [...] (from NC Division of Parks and Recreation, NC Dept. of Natural and Cultural Resources.)
Jones, James H.
by Beck, Raymond L. Jones, James H. by Raymond L. Beck, 1988 1831–8 Apr. 1921 James H. Jones, coachman and confidential courier for Confederate [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Jones, Thomas H.
by Leder, Eric. Jones, Thomas H. By Eric Leder, North Carolina State University, 2013 1806-? Thomas H. Jones was a self-educated abolitionist, minister, and author who spent much of his early life in [...] (from NCpedia.)
Journey of Reconciliation, 1947
by . In 1947 the Congress of Racial Equality & local citizens, black & white, protested bus segregation. Setting out from Washington, D.C., "freedom riders" tested compliance with a U.S. Supreme [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Kay, Willie Virginia Otey
by Bell-Kite, Diana, Agan, Kelly. KAY, WILLIE VIRGINIA OTEY 17 Mar. 1894 – 25 Sept. 1992 By Diana Bell-Kite, NC Museum of History and Kelly Agan, NC Government & Heritage Library, 2016 “You have to like what you do, [...] (from North Carolina Museum of History.)
Kester, Howard Anderson ("Buck")
by Martin, Robert F. Howard Anderson ("Buck") Kester, clergyman, educator, and social reformer, was born near Martinsville in Henry County, Va. He was the youngest of three children of Nannie Holt, of Lynchburg, Va., and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Kirk-Holden War
by Hill, Michael. The lynching of Wyatt Outlaw on the courthouse square in Graham in 1870 continues to reverberate across the generations. The consequences for North Carolina were profound, leading to the first [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Larkins, John Rodman
by Eagles, Charles W. Larkins, John Rodman by Charles W. Eagles, 1991 24 Dec. 1913–21 Mar. 1980 John Rodman Larkins, state government official, was born in Wilmington, the son [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lewis, Joe: We Weren't Afraid
by Cecelski, David S. I met Joe Lewis in Louisburg, the county seat of Franklin County, 25 miles northeast of Raleigh. A vigorous 81-year-old who still breaks and trains horses, Lewis has never considered himself a civil [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Lockamy, Fred: Sorrow Valley
by Cecelski, David S. On April 9, 1968, 16-year-old Fred Lockamy and four of his longtime friends decided to strike back at the Ku Klux Klan by burning down its local meeting hall. They lived in a black neighborhood in [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Lowry, Welton: The Spirit Of Henry Berry Lowry
by Cecelski, David S. On the night of Jan. 18, 1958, Welton Lowry and hundreds of other Lumbee Indians surrounded a Ku Klux Klan rally near Maxton, 90 miles south of Raleigh in Robeson County. The Lumbee launched barrages [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Lynching
by Baker, Bruce E. Lynching, the unlawful killing of a person by a mob and one of the most extreme forms of community sanction, has occurred in North Carolina on numerous occasions throughout its history. The term [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Mabley, Jackie (Moms)
by Gillespie, James D. Mabley, Jackie (Moms) by James D. Gillespie 1898–23 May 1975 (1898–23 May 1975), comedienne and actress, was born Loretta Mary Aiken in Brevard, the daughter of "Uncle" Jim and Mary Aiken. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Malcolm X Liberation University
by Toosi, Nahal. Malcolm X Liberation University (MXLU), an experimental institution of higher education focusing on African American history and life, opened in Durham in October 1969. Named for slain black leader [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Manly, Alex
by Miller, Daniel R. Alex Manly, black newspaper editor and Republican party leader in Wilmington, published the Wilmington Daily Record, which described itself as "the only negro daily in the world." The Record covered [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Speech in Rocky Mount, N.C., November 1962
by . A speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. in Rocky Mount on November 27, 1962, has drawn much attention. In that address, before 1,800 in the gymnasium at Booker T. Washington High School (that building [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
McCoy, Eddie: Write-Off Kids
by Cecelski, David S. Eddie McCoy stands at the heart of historian Tim Tyson's stirring new memoir, "Blood Done Sign My Name." The book tells the heart-rending story of the 1970 racial murder of a black man named Henry [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
McDowell, Adell: A Frightful Time
by Cecelski, David S. They called it "Operation Dixie." From 1946 to 1953, a labor union movement swept through the state's tobacco fields, lumber mills and textile factories. It was part of the largest labor organizing [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Moses, Athenia: Standing Up For The Things We Believed
by Cecelski, David S. Athenia Moses will soon be honored by the Goldsboro-Wayne County branch of the NAACP for something that she did more than half a century ago. At a banquet on Feb. 11, the NAACP will recognize her and [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
by Gavins, Raymond, Vocci, Robert Blair. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People by Raymond Gavins, 2006 Additional research provided by Robert Blair Vocci. The National Association for the Advancement of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
NC Commission of Indian Affairs
by Richardson, Gregory A. In the mid-1900s, American Indian communities in North Carolina were struggling for survival, facing many adversities, and without a voice in local or state government. These communities were, for [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Parker, Kellis Earl
by Carrier, Sarah. Lenoir County native Kellis Earl Parker, an accomplished lawyer, activist, scholar, and musician, was born January 13, 1942 in Kinston, North Carolina. In addition to his distinguished career, Parker [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
PCB Protests
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. In the summer of 1978, Ward Transformer Company paid a trucking company to drive along rural North Carolina roads at night to discharge liquid contaminated with PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) onto [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Pearsall Plan
by Thuesen, Sarah C. On 17 May 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court declared in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. In the years that followed, the southern states [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Perry, Samuel L.
by Uzzell, Odell. Perry, Samuel L. by Odell Uzzell, 1994 Related Entries: African American; Civil Rights; Transportation; Exodusters b. 1849 Samuel L. Perry, teacher and civil rights activist, resided in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Plessy v. Ferguson
by Roundtree, Lynn. Plessy v. Ferguson by Lynn Roundtree, 2006 In 1896 the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the so-called separate-but-equal segregation of whites and blacks in public facilities in its decision on [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pollard, John Henry Mingo
by London, Lawrence F. John Henry Mingo Pollard, Episcopal clergyman, was born in Lunenburg County, Va. He read for orders in Petersburg, Va., under the direction of the Reverend Giles B. Cooke, John D. Keiley, and the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Powell, Sallie: Determined To Teach
by Cecelski, David S. I visited Sallie Powell in Elizabethtown, in Bladen County, in the state's southeast corner. In the era of segregated schooling, she was one of a remarkable generation of African-American teachers [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Price, Joseph Charles
by Inscoe, John C. Price, Joseph Charles by John Inscoe, 1994 Related Entries: Civil Rights; Civil War; African American; Historically Black Colleges and Universities 10 Feb. 1854–25 Oct. 1893 Joseph [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pupil Assignment Act
by Campbell, Karl E. The Pupil Assignment Act was North Carolina's first and most effective legislative response to the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. On 17 May 1954 the Court declared that [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Radio Broadcasting - Part 4: Radio Broadcasting and the Civil Rights Movement
by McFee, Philip. Part 1: North Carolina's First Radio Stations, Part 2: Radio Enters Its "Golden Age" in North Carolina, Part 3: National Networks and Popular Local Shows and Personalities, Part 4: Radio Broadcasting [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Radio Free Dixie
by Williams, Wiley J. Radio Free Dixie was an African American, English-language radio program broadcast from Radio Havana from 1962 to 1965 that called upon "oppressed Negroes to rise and free themselves." Narrated by [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Richardson, Willis
by McIntyre, Pattie B. Willis Richardson, playwright, was born in Wilmington, the son of Willis Wilder and Agnes Ann Harper Richardson. After the riot of 1898, he moved with his parents from Wilmington to Washington, D.C. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Riddick, Elsie Garnett
by Durrill, Wayne K. Elsie Garnett Riddick, politician, suffragist, and advocate of woman's rights, was born on her father's farm six miles from Gatesville, the daughter of David Elbert and Cornelia Ann Speight Riddick. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Roberts, Tibbie: Free As The Marsh Ponies
by Cecelski, David S. I visited Tibbie Roberts at her home in the coastal town of Morehead City. Born 92 years ago across the river in Beaufort, she has been a women's rights activist all her life. She was a pioneer for [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Royal Ice Cream Sit-In
by Daniels, Dennis F. The 1960 Greensboro sit-ins sparked a national movement but were not the first such action. Individual and group protest actions prior to 1960, generally isolated and often without wider impact, took [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Sanders, Bunny: Serpents and Doves
by Cecelski, David S. Elmer Vanray "E.V." Wilkins was a legendary educator and black political leader in Roper, in Washington County. I recently visited with his daughter, Bunny Sanders, to learn more about his life and [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
School Desegregation
by Currie, Jefferson. School Desegregation "With Deliberate Speed: North Carolina and School Desegregation" by Jefferson Currie II Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2004. Tar Heel [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Seabrook, James Ward
by Burns, Augustus M., III. Seabrook, James Ward by A. M. Burns III, 1994 Related Entries: Historically Black Colleges; Civil Rights 6 Nov. 1886–26 Mar. 1974 James Ward Seabrook, educator, college president, leader [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Simkins v. Cone
by Thomas, Karen Kruse. In 1962 dentist George Simkins, physician Alvin Blount, and other African American physicians and their patients sued Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital and Wesley Long Community Hospital in Greensboro, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Simmons, James Frederick
by Powell, William S. James Frederick Simmons, poet, newspaperman, and judge, was born in Halifax, the son of James (1800–1891) and Susan Gary Simmons. His mother died when he was an infant and he was raised by an aunt, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slade, James: People That Do Right
by Cecelski, David S. Dr. James Slade is the sort of impossibly old-fashioned doctor who still makes house calls and has never thought about joining an HMO. For 35 years he has been practicing pediatrics and general [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
by Gavins, Raymond. Southern Christian Leadership Conference by Raymond Gavins, 2006 The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), established in 1957 in Atlanta and headed by Martin Luther King Jr. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Spaulding, Charles Clinton
by Weare, Walter B. Charles Clinton Spaulding, black businessman and community leader, was born in Columbus County to parents descended from a long-standing community of free Negro landholders in the area. A family oral [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
State v. Manuel
by Stoesen, Alexander R. State v. Manuel by Alexander R. Stoesen, 2006 State v. Manuel, argued before the North Carolina Supreme Court in 1838, was the first case to decide that a free black person was a citizen of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
by Hill, Michael. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was one of the most influential organizations to participate in the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Although SNCC is best known for its role [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
The Green Book
by Agan, Kelly, Scott, Jordan. The Green Book, also known as The Negro Motorist Green Book, later known as The Negro Traveler’s Green Book in 1952, and finally the Travelers’ Green Book in 1960, was a guide for black travelers [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Thirteenth Amendment
by Alexander, Roberta Sue. Thirteenth Amendment by Roberta Sue Alexander, 2006 The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, sent to the states for ratification in February 1865 with the unanimous support of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Tyson, Vernon: Miss Amy's Witness
by Cecelski, David S. In 1963, when the Rev. Vernon Tyson was pastor of Jonesboro Methodist Church in Sanford, he invited Dr. Samuel Proctor to preach for what was called Race Relations Sunday. Proctor, an [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Vann, Robert Lee
by Eagles, Charles W. Robert Lee Vann, newspaper editor, was born in Ahoskie to Lucy Peoples, who named him for his great-grandfather, Robert Lee, and for her first employer, Albert Vann. His father is unknown. At age six [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Waters, Vincent Stanislaus
by Carroll, Grady L. E. Vincent Stanislaus Waters, Roman Catholic prelate, was born in Roanoke, Va., the son of Michael Bernard, a railroad machinist, and Mary Francis Crowley Waters. He attended St. Andrews School [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Weil, Gertrude
by Bodman, Ellen-Fairbanks Diggs. Weil, Gertrude by Ellen-Fairbanks Diggs Bodman, 1996 See also: Weil, Gertrude (State Library of NC) 11 Dec. 1879–30 May [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Weil, Gertrude
by Huaman, Jaime. Gertrude Weil 1879 - 1971 by Jaime Huaman Government & Heritage Library, 2010 See also: Weil, Gertrude (UNC [...] (from NCpedia.)
Wheeler, John Hervey
by Weare, Walter B. John Harvey Wheeler, black businessman and civil rights leader, was born in Kittrell on the campus of Kittrell College, an African Methodist Episcopal church school of which his father was president. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
White Citizens' Councils
by Schutz, J. Christopher, McRae, Elizabeth Gillespie. White Citizens' Councils were established during the 1950s in reaction to federal initiatives to end racial segregation in the South. Historically, they were similar to the various white supremacy [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
White Patriots of North Carolina
by McRae, Elizabeth Gillespie. On 22 Aug. 1955, following the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 356 men and women formed the White Patriots of North Carolina to circumvent the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Williams, Mabel: Standing Up To The Klan
by Cecelski, David S. I interviewed Mabel Williams two years after her legendary husband's death. They both grew up in Monroe at a time when lynchings were common and many things that we take for granted were marked [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Williams, Robert Franklin
by Agan, Kelly, Scott, Jordan. Williams, Robert Franklin by Jordan Scott, Government & Heritage Library, 2019; contributions by Kelly Agan, Government & Heritage Library, 2019. 26 Feb. 1925-15 Oct. [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Williams, Willis: Life And Death At Devils Gut
by Cecelski, David S. In September of 1957, a Martin County teenager named Willis Williams had the courage to tell the truth about the death of an African-American college student named Joe Cross. His story shocked North [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Wilmington Ten
by Stinson, Craig M. On 6 Feb. 1971, after weeks of racial tension over integration of the public school system in Wilmington, a white-owned grocery store in a black neighborhood was firebombed. A year later Ben Chavis, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wilmington Ten (from UNC-CH)
by Graham, Nicholas. In early February, 1971, downtown Wilmington, N.C. was a war zone. Shots rang through the streets, traffic was blocked, and citizens were barricaded in a church. Although it took only a couple of [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Women Suffrage
by Pruden, Caroline. The women suffrage movement in North Carolina began in 1894 with the formation of the North Carolina Equal Suffrage Association in Asheville. Association president Helen Morris sought a state [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Women- Part 7: Women Earn the Right to Vote
by Crow, Terrell A. Part 1: Introduction; Part 2: Women's Roles in Precolonial and Colonial North Carolina; Part 3: Women in the Revolutionary Era and Early Statehood; Part 4: Life in Antebellum North Carolina; Part 5: [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wright, Marion Allen
by Copeland, J. Isaac. Wright, Marion Allen by J. Isaac Copeland, 1996 18 Jan. 1894–14 Feb. 1983 Marion Allen Wright, attorney, citizen of the two Carolinas, and firm supporter of civil rights, was born in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Young, Allen Lawrence
by Murray, Elizabeth Reid. Allen Lawrence Young, community leader, educator, and founder of the Wake Forest Normal and Industrial School for Negroes (1905–57), was born in northern Wake County, the eldest of ten children of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
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