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This article is from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell. Copyright © 2006 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher. For personal use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other use directly to the publisher.

Wildcat Division

by R. Jackson Marshall III, 2006

A shoulder patch insignia of the 81st National Army Division., a.k.a., the Wildcat Division, 1918. Image from the North Carolina Museum of History.The Wildcat Division, a World War I unit officially known as the Eighty-first National Army Division, was organized in August 1917 with drafted soldiers, mostly from North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida. Approximately one-third of the soldiers were North Carolinians from almost every part of the state. Two regiments-the 321st Infantry and the 316th Field Artillery-and the 321st Ambulance Company were made up almost exclusively of North Carolinians. The division was called the "Wildcat" Division in recognition of the irascible wildcats that inhabited southern states and after Wildcat Creek, which ran near Camp Jackson, S.C., where the unit was mobilized. The men adopted a wildcat silhouette as a shoulder patch, the first insignia worn by troops in the American Expeditionary Force.

In 1918 the Wildcat Division sailed for Europe where, after additional combat instruction, it was sent on 19 September to the St. Dié sector of France's Vosges Mountain region. There, as part of the French Seventh Army, the division held what was considered a quiet front, although it fought off German trench raids and endured artillery bombardments. On 19 October the Eighty-first was relieved and ordered to the rear to await transfer to the American 1st Army, which was fighting in the Meuse-Argonne offensive. While serving in the St. Dié sector, the division suffered 116 casualties.

In early November 1918 the Eighty-first moved to the front lines near Verdun, where its infantry regiments attacked German lines on the morning of 9 November. From the outset the division encountered heavy machine gun and artillery fire; heavy fog and smoke hindered visibility but also likely saved "Tuffy," the mascot of the 81st Division in World War II. Image from the North Carolina Museum of History.American lives in the attack. By late afternoon, the 322nd Infantry Regiment had captured the ruined village of Moranville. On the south side of the forest, the 324th Infantry Regiment slowly pushed the enemy back but then abandoned much of the ground by withdrawing to a safer position. The day's fighting produced mixed results, with success north of Bois de Manheulles and frustration south of the forest.

When on the night of 10 November Wildcat Division commanders received no official confirmation of rumors that an armistice might be signed the next day, the 321st and 323rd Infantry Regiments planned a dawn attack on the main German trench line. At daybreak the 321st went "over the top" for the first time and attacked enemy trench positions north of Bois de Manheulles, slowly advancing through heavy fog and shell and machine gun fire. At 10:30 a.m. the 323rd began to fight its way through the barbed wire entanglements along the German main trench line into and south of Bois de Manheulles; some Americans entered German trenches and many were either killed or pinned down under enemy fire. At 11:00 a.m. the firing abruptly stopped when the armistice of 11 Nov. 1918 ended hostilities.

Following the armistice, the Wildcat Division marched 175 miles to a rest area and in early June returned to the United States. During the short time the Eighty-first was in combat, it suffered 248 killed and 856 wounded.



Felix E. Brockman, Here, There, and Back (1925).

C. Walton Johnson, Wildcats: History of the 321st Infantry, 81st Division (1919).

Additional Resources:

North Carolina State Archives. "The Old North State and 'Kaiser Bill': North Carolinians in World War I" N.C. Office of Archives and History. 2005. (accessed October 24, 2012).

"81st Infantry Division." United States Army Center of Military History. (accessed October 24, 2012).

Johnson, Clarence Walton. History of the 321st infantry with a brief historical sketch of the 81st division, being a vivid and authentic account of the life and experiences of American soldiers in France, while they trained, worked, and fought to help win the world war ; "Wildcats". Columbia, S.C.: R.L. Bryan Co. 1919.,511

House, R. B. "Wins Distinguished Service Cross Lieut. W. O. Smith, Of "Wildcat" Division, Decorated For Gallant Service." The Orphans’ Friend and Masonic Journal. October 22, 1920.,764

House, R. B. "Chief Of The "Wildcats" General C. Batley, Pennsylvanian, Commanded The 81st In France." The Orphans’ Friend and Masonic Journal.,766

Wildcat Veteran's Association. "Wildcat national reunion: eighty-first division, November 8, 9, 10, 11, 1936, Knoxville, Tennessee." S.l: The Association]. 1936.

Image Credits:

"Military Insignia, Accession #: H.19XX.193.27." 1918. North Carolina Museum of History.

"Photograph, Accession #: H.1947.44.2.2." 1941-1945. North Carolina Museum of History.



Both of my grandfathers, from Lapine Alabama, were in the 81st Wildcat DIV.
George R Evans 322nd INF Awarded the DSC and French and Italian equivalents
Shadrach Meshach Mitchell 324 INF MG promoted to Corporal
Both for their heroic efforts in the St Mihiel and Meuse Argonne . I went Over There for the 100 year observation of the Armistice. I was in the 5 communes en Woerve from 11/8 thru the 11th , and met the great local French people who still honor the sacrifice Americans made to liberate their homeland. I was the only American to show up and I was welcomed by the people of Grimaucourt and surrounding communes, and I participated in the 11/11 service in Moranville. I was honered to lay the flowers at the AUX ENFANTS DE MORANVILLE MORTS and I cannot express what this meant to me. " Wildcats Never Quit !" If you care to, please contact me at the email address above. Bubba Evans


Wow! Sounds like you had an amazing experience! Thank you for sharing!

Erin Bradford, Government and Heritage Library


Please email me. I want to learn more about my grandfathers and the Wildcats !

Bubba Evans


My Grandfather was in the 323rd Infantry, 81 Wildcat division in France when armistice was called. He was a Sargent and I have his maps, some badges, books pictures and several papers.


My Grandfather was in Company M of the 323rd in France in WWI. I would really like to talk with you.


My Grandfather , Belton Carlisle Plowden , and namesake , fought in Verdun , France , under American General of the Armies John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing , as a Major in the American Expeditionary Force ( AEF ) , 81st Division . That and the fact that , He , and my Father Will - Best Carlyle Plowden ,
were graduates , of The Military College of South Carolina , aka . " The Citadel " in Charleston , South Carolina . Unfortunately , that is all that I know ,
about him . He died , when my sister was 6 mos old . It was June of 1949 . He was 55 years old . He was borne in Greenville , S C , in 1894 . I never got
the privilege to know him for this reason . His wife , my father 's and aunt , Jacqueline Plowden [ Shapard ] , mother , Laurie Best , I was able to know ,
until her death , April 16th , with her funeral and interment on the 22nd , 1979 , to know her . We , she and I , had great times together . She was 84 when she died . She never spoke much about my grandfather . I wish that she had told me more . I still have relatives , that live in South Carolina ,
Greenville and Orangeburg , most notably . If there is any information that you can provide to me , I will be greatly , appreciative .

Sincerely ,

Belton C . Plowden , II ( 101 N . 8th St . Griffin , Ga . 30224 )
she died .


Dear Belton,

Thank you for visiting NCpedia and especially for sharing your history and question. I have forwarded your question to reference services at the NC Government & Heritage Library. A reference librarian will contact you shortly to try to help with your question.

Best wishes,

Kelly Agan, Government & Heritage Library


Hello everyone
In my museum, I present the mess kit of 1st Lt William O Smith.
See also on

F Besch


My grandfather, Pvt. William R Shinn, of Cullman, AL, served in Co. M, 323 Infantry during WWI. I am trying to piece together in what engagements he served. I have his dog tag and his Wildcat shoulder patch. Any information about the 323 Infantry would be appreciated.


A family member of mine served in the hellcats and if any one can find a rufford Lewis in the records on who served please tell me he must have served in or after ww2 I have pictures of the class he graduated with and him with some commanding officers please help me find him in these photos

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