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Haliwa Indians and Haliwa-Saponi Tribe

by Ruth Y. Wetmore, 2006

(originally published in the Encyclopedia of North Carolina as "Haliwa Indians." Title updated 2018).

"Haliwa-Saponi Tribe  In NC." Photo courtesy of Flickr user Neil Smith, taken on May 20, 2009. The Haliwa Indians were recognized as a tribe by the North Carolina legislature in 1965. The tribal name is a combination of Halifax and Warren Counties, where the majority of the Haliwa live. One tradition relates that the present Indian communities in this area were founded by wounded survivors of the Tuscarora War and other colonial conflicts who were unable to rejoin their original tribal groups. In addition to North Carolina coastal tribes, Accomac, Cherokee, Nansemond, Occaneechi, Saponi, Tuscarora, and Tutelo Indians are claimed as Haliwa ancestors. Since 1975, the Haliwa have referred to themselves as the Haliwa-Saponi.

Although Indians were living in this area before the American Revolution and some served as soldiers in that war, the emergence of the Haliwa with a collective Indian identity has been relatively recent. The Haliwa Indian Club was organized in the 1950s, and its membership roll became the arbiter of Indian identity. As they were for other state-recognized tribes in North Carolina, schools and churches were important in strengthening Haliwa group identity, although a separate Haliwa school was not established until 1957.

In 1965, when the Haliwa became a state-recognized Indian tribe, nearly 400 persons successfully brought suit in Halifax County court to change the racial designation on their birth certificates, marriage licenses, and driver's licenses to "Indian." In the early 2000s there were approximately 3,000 Haliwas living in Halifax and Warren Counties. The tribe holds an annual powwow in April and conducts a number of economic and educational programs for its members.

Additional information from NCpedia editors at the State Library of North Carolina: : 

In the late 1940s a group of Indians in northeastern North Carolina formed the Haliwarnash Croatan Indian Club, a name simplified shortly thereafter to the Haliwa Indian Club.  The change also reflected the deletion of Nash County as most of the enrollees lived in Halifax and Warren Counties.  Subsequently, to bolster their claim for recognition, the tribe appended to their name the suffix Saponi, to reflect tribal ancestral ties to the Sappony tribe.  The name Saponi means “red earth people,” and that phrase had been used in several contexts by the Haliwa-Saponi.

W. R. “Talking Eagle” Richardson led the retribalization effort among the Haliwa-Saponi.  Richardson returned to North Carolina from Philadelphia in 1955 and was elected the tribe’s first chief.  He was instrumental in the founding in 1971 of the North Carolina Commission on Indian Affairs.  Leadership has placed emphasis on tribal self-sufficiency, preservation of tribal culture, and improvement of the quality of life for members.

As on 2018 the tribe consists of 4,300 enrolled tribal members, of which sixty-two percent live on the Warren and Halifax County border.  Another 1,898 members reside in Halifax County in Brinkleyville Township and 887 live in Warren County in Fishing Creek Township.  In recent years Haliwa-Saponi enrollees, living in Halifax County around the community of Hollister, have operated a host of businesses, including restaurants, floral shops, garages, and real estate offices.

--Michael Hill, Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, 2018.


J. K. Dane and B. Eugene Griessman, "The Collective Identity of Marginal Peoples: The N.C. Experience," American Anthropologist 74 (1972).

Alfred Tamarin, We Have Not Vanished: Eastern Indians of the United States (1974).

Ruth Y. Wetmore, First on the Land: The North Carolina Indians (1975).

Additional Resources:

Haliwa-Saponi Tribe website:

Thomas E. Ross, American Indians in North Carolina:  Geographic Interpretations (1999)

Image Credit:

"Haliwa-Saponi Tribe  In NC." Photo courtesy of Flickr user Neil Smith, taken on May 20, 2009. Available from (accessed May 23, 2012).

Origin - location: 



My genology research of my family ( Eaton Solomon, Great Grandfather and Leah Solomon Clark ( Grandmother) were Indians who lived in Brinkleyville NC. Are any of my relatives "Solomons" living there in 2021?


please im in need of help my mother was adopted by a family her father was name Rayor Raymond xstein she was taken from a tribe and was adopted by the bostic family she's been searching for her family for 39 years please help her name was patty but it was changed during the adoption she was raised in NC



I am sending your comment to our reference librarians to assist you. 

Erin Bradford, Govenment and Heritage Library


what would I need to do in order to get my race changed?


would love to be able to find out more about my family history on both sides of my family. my mom maiden name was or is Hedgepeth, and my Fathers Last name is Coley, don't know a whole lot about either,Bob Coley, Odelll Richardson Coley, Wilson Hedgepeth and Olivia Rudd Hedgepeth. Also i'm interested in becoming a tribal Member,not sure how to do this.but if i could get
more infomation on this it would be much appreciated. Thank you so much,hope to hear from you soon.


Hello, my grandmother was Uyzella Hedgepeth and my grandfather was Lartha Anistead. I have just started doing research.


Thanks for you inquiry in NCpedia. You may want to try contacting the Haliwa-Saponi tribe. More information about their contact information can be found here: If you need additional help References Services at the Government & Heritage Library is also a good starting point. Their direct email address is Contact information may be found for them at  Good luck in your research!

Kelly Eubank

Government and Heritage Library


Thank you so much!


Ancestors research: William Burton 1770 to 1820 pension from revolutionary war says he was married to Indian and her name was unknown....
They moved to granville tn. With john Smith webb and some more settlers..around 1800... would like to know as much as I can learn about William Burton's wife they were from granville county n.c. thinking she was haliwa saponi Indian. Have been searching for years, help would be greatly appreciated..


Hi Greg,

Thank you for visiting NCpedia. I am sending your email to the Government and Heritage Library’s Reference Team. A librarian will be in touch.

Best wishes,

Elizabeth Hayden

Government and Heritage Library

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