Criollo royalist general who proclaimed himself emperor of Mexico in 1822. A criollo royalist general, Iturbide (1783-1824) switched sides and had himself crowned "emperor" of Mexico in 1822 in the style of Napoleon. This move did not go over very well except among the wealthy oligarchy, and his pompous and spendthrift ceremonies quickly alienated many of them as well. A revolt brought about by his autocratic, high-handed style forced him into exile, first to Italy, and later to England. The victorious republic condemned him in absentia for treason, but he returned in 1824 ostensibly to offer his services to the republic, but likely to plan a return to power. He was executed in 1824.