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This article is from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell. Copyright © 2006 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher. For personal use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other use directly to the publisher.

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Samarcand Manor

by Julian M. Pleasants, 2006

See also: Samarcand (Research Branch, NCO&H)

Samarcand Building, 1926. Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_187. Samarcand Manor, officially the State Home and Industrial School for Girls, was a humane correctional institution for young women established near Eagle Springs by the North Carolina state legislature in 1918. The purpose of the school was to reclaim and train delinquent girls by providing a "homelike place where those who have fallen may find temporary shelter, and under a firm yet kind discipline, begin to live morally." The school, built on 230 acres in Samarcand (named for the Muslim city conquered by Alexander the Great that served as his empire's seat of learning and culture), was one of the first institutions of its type in the South. The original clients were young girls or women who had been convicted of being prostitutes, vagrants, or habitual drunkards or who were guilty of any misdemeanor suggesting that they were "not virtuous." There were no definite terms, but the clients could not be held more than three years and were to be released on good behavior.

"Our Three Youngest." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call#: N_98_9_189.Agnes B. MacNaughton became Samarcand's first superintendent, and by 1919 more than 200 women between the ages of 10 and 30 had arrived. In the 1920s the daily program emphasized Bible study, manners, cleanliness, music, nature, and sports in addition to the regular academic subjects. The girls also received vocational training in sewing, weaving, canning, laundry work, and poultry and dairying activities. The program stressed self-reliance and pride in one's work. Between 1928 and 1930 a total of 296 girls were admitted, most between the ages of 12 and 16. By 1930 Samarcand had a hospital and an accredited high school.

In 1931, 16 Samarcand inmates set fire to two dorms and were charged with arson, then a capital crime. While awaiting trial, the girls burned their jail cells. Eight of the 12 involved were eventually sent to prison. Samarcand survived this notorious 1931 incident and other difficulties but was unable to withstand the financial strains of the Great Depression and the siphoning off of staff during World War II. In 1974 the state changed the name of the institution to Samarcand Manor and placed it under the purview of the North Carolina Department of Human Resources, Youth Division. Samarcand became one of five state training schools designed to rehabilitate delinquent children (both male and female) between the ages of 10 and 17. The school shifted its emphasis to treatment and therapy. In the early 2000s Samarcand had approximately 190 clients (40 females and 150 males) and 210 staff members.

References: "Playtime, children on the wagon." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_188.

Ida Briggs Henderson, "The Work at Samarcand," The State (4 Apr. 1936).

Lisbeth Parrott, "Samarcand Opens Door of Hope to 1,000th Girl in Tenth Year," Raleigh News and Observer, 7 Oct. 1928.

Samarcand Manor: 50th Anniversary, 1918-1968 (1968).

Additional Resources:

State Home and Industrial School for Girls (Samarcand, N.C.). Biennial report of the Board of Directors and Superintendent of the State Home and Industrial School for Girls, Samarcand Manor, Samarcand, N.C. Samarcand, N.C. [N.C.]: The School. 1926-1938. http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/ref/collection/p16062coll9/id/4894 (accessed May 24, 2013).

Samarkand Manor. GoogleMaps.

"Samarcand." N.C. Highway Historical Marker K-34, N.C. Office of Archives & History. https://www.ncdcr.gov/about/history/division-historical-resources/nc-highway-historical-marker-program/Markers.aspx?sp=Markers&k=Markers&sv=K-34

McLaurin, Melton Alonza, and Russell, Anne. The Wayward Girls of Samarcand: A true story of the American South. Wilmington, N.C.: Bradley Creek Press. 2012.

Steelman, Ben. "Review - McLaurin, Russell write a gripping yarn." StarNews Media. July 8, 2012. http://www.starnewsonline.com/article/20120708/articles/120709845

Gilkeson, Florence. "Samarkand Makes Case to Stay Open." ThePilot.com. September 24, 2009.  #

Image Credits:

Samarcand Building, 1926. Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_187.

"Playtime, children on the wagon." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_188.

"Our Three Youngest." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call#: N_98_9_189.

Origin - location: 

Comments

Comment: 

I was there when I was 12 . I can't remember what Cottage I was in but it was all girls at the bottom of the hill. He goes to impact play pool remember I won third place in the softball throw remember swimming in the pool with a real good friend named Connie she was a 9blonde hair green eyed beautiful girl older than me. And one of the cottage parents was named Miss heel she was a black woman and she was so nice. I'm 52 now and all I could do when I was there was try to run away. Oh yeah and I remember having a teacher he had a glass eye and his name was mr. Horsley. Anyone remember him.

Comment: 

I was there in 1985 i remember mr horsely. I was in tufts after leaving mitchel cottage. When i first got there mr green was a really nice staff member remember walking to the old building for meals lock up was on the right as we came in they would stand at the bars it was scary i was there when the forest fire just about burnt it down what was the barbers name he taught me how cut hair.

Comment: 

I was there about that time...

Comment: 

i was also on samarkand manors drill team in the 80s we performed in parades and other funtions.

Comment: 

i was at samarkand manor in the 80 s i remember most of the cottages names norton was down the hill then you came up to fry cottage which was for girls then there was irland cottage and my favorite cottage was tuffs between irland cottage was the rec center and title 20 was up stairs above that and of course there was carroll hall that place was really a mess back then so much was happening the people worked there couldnt keep up with everything you had 12 to 16 year olds working around smoking cigarttes and being jus bad asses lolglad them days are long pass i still thing about samarkand every now and then.

Comment: 

Daniel hi it's MJ if this is the right guy you were a blonde real handsome guy when you were in Samarkand.

Comment: 

My Aunt was sent to Samarcand sometime between 1958-1961. Her name was
Nancy Jane Bowman then. Does anyone remember her?

Comment: 

Very nice. I always wondered what happened to Frances Karangela too.

Comment: 

I was there from 1965 to 1967. I was at Carrol Hall, Gardner and New cottage. Good times and bad. Strangely I remember mostly good. Even though sometimes we were on silence and couldn't say the word boy, shining floors. Half day of school then assignment. I had sewing, dinner cook, ice plant. Learned a lot.

Comment: 

Did u graduate from there?

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