Copyright notice

This article is from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell. Copyright © 2006 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher. For personal use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other use directly to the publisher.

Is anything in this article factually incorrect? Please submit a comment.

Printer-friendly page

Great Wagon Road

by R. Jackson Marshall III, 2006

The Great Wagon Road was the most important frontier road in the state's western Piedmont during the eighteenth century. Sometimes called the "Great Philadelphia Wagon Road," it began in Philadelphia, crossed westward to Gettysburg, turned south to Hagerstown, Md., continued south to Winchester, Va., through the Shenandoah Valley to Roanoke, and on to the North Carolina border. There it entered present-day northeastern Stokes County and passed through Walnut Cove, Germanton, Winston-Salem, Salisbury, and Charlotte before continuing into South Carolina and Georgia.Map of The Great Wagon Road and its offshoots in North Carolina, 1750-1780. By Mark Anderson Moore, courtesy North Carolina Office of Archives and History, Raleigh. (Click to view map.)

The route that became the Great Wagon Road was originally a Native American hunting, trade, and war trail called the "Warrior's Path." In the mid-1700s European colonists, many arriving from ships in or near Philadelphia, began traveling south along the trail in search of land for new homes. At first the road was so narrow and rough that only travelers on horseback could use it; the farther south it went (from Pennsylvania into the wilderness), the more impassable it became. But as the settlers made their way along the trail, they cut trees, found suitable fords across rivers, and worked around obstacles until wagons could pass. In time the Great Wagon Road improved, by colonial standards.

From the 1750s the Great Wagon Road was critical to the development of North Carolina. Tens of thousands of German and Scotch-Irish immigrants entered the colony from the north along the road and settled in the western Piedmont. The Moravian settlements of Bethabara, Bethania, and Salem, as well as the cities of Salisbury and Charlotte, owe their creation and expansion to the Great Wagon Road. Important as a trade route, it provided a means for transporting frontier goods like deerskins to trade for salt, firearms, iron, and other items. Livestock such as hogs were herded down the road to markets in Virginia or South Carolina. In fact, the road was crucial to the survival of the western fringe of colonial settlement.

During the Revolutionary War, the Great Wagon Road was the key supply line to the American resistance in the western areas of the colonies, especially in the South. For this reason Lord Charles Cornwallis led his English army from Charleston to the Great Wagon Road at Camden, S.C. His troops marched north along the road through Charlotte, and later through Salisbury and Salem, in an attempt to destroy Gen. Nathanael Greene's Continental Army and civilian support in North Carolina. Although unsuccessful in all these efforts, Cornwallis fully understood the importance of the Great Wagon Road during the Revolution.

The road continued to play a significant economic role in North Carolina into the nineteenth century. With the expansion of railroads and the development of new roads in each community, however, it fell into disuse and in many areas disappeared. Much of the original route can still be found in Maryland and Virginia as State Highway 11, but there is no state or federal road that follows it in North Carolina. Parts of the old road can be found in heavily wooded tracts, and often local roads follow a brief stretch of the old route, but the cities that owe their existence to the Great Wagon Road have largely buried it through urban development.


Forrest W. Clonts, "Travel and Transportation in Colonial North Carolina," NCHR 3 (January 1926).

James M. Cooper, The Indian Trading Path and Great Wagon Road across North Carolina: Highlighting Rowan and Cabarrus Counties (1995).

C. Christopher Crittenden, "Overland Travel and Transportation in North Carolina, 1763-1789," NCHR 8 (July 1931).

Additional Resources:

Mobely, Joe A., editor. "The Great Wagon Road." The Way We Lived in North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 2003. (accessed June 15, 2012).

Rouse, Parke. The Great Wagon Road: from Philadelphia to the South.  New York: McGraw-Hill. 1973.

Image Credits:

Great Wagon Road map by Mark Anderson Moore, courtesy North Carolina Office of Archives and History, Raleigh.




Dear David,

Thank you for visiting NCpedia and for sharing this question.  That’s a great question!

Here is a link to a generalized map of George Washington’s trip from Mountain Vernon’s website:  It is very interesting to compare the western route of the trip which goes through Guilford Court House, Salem and Salisbury to the map of the Wagon Road.  I suspect that some of the roads traveled may have been part of that system, but I cannot say for sure.  

You may want to look at a few additional resources that may have more information or mention of the route.  These include the resources included with the NCpedia article about George Washington’s southern tour as well as:

Bingham, Warren L. 2016. George Washington's 1791 Southern Tour. Arcadia Publishing Inc.

Henderson, Archibald. Washington’s Southern Tour 1791. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1923.

Here is also an article from Learn NC about the Wagon Road, that gives more information about its historical development:

Finally, here is a book about the Great Wagon Road, published in 2004 that might be of interest:

Rouse, Parke. 2004. The Great Wagon Road: from Philadelphia to the South.

I have included links to WorldCat for Bigham’s book and Rouse’s book.  WorldCat searches libraries all over the world and you can see if a library near you has a particular book.  Your local library may also be able to borrow a book for you from another library.

I hope this helps.  Please let me know if you have additional questions.

Best wishes,
Kelly Agan, NC Government & Heritage Library


This website is good and it is helping me and john with a project. Thank you!


Why is the great wagon road named so and i need the anser fast


this is a really good website!


As so many writers do, they mistake The Great Wagon Road to Philadelphia with The Great Philadelphia Wagon Road. The later went through Frederick, Maryland, and crossed the Potomac near Shepherdstown. The former crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, Maryland, or Conococheague.


I live in NW Rockingham County, NW of Stoneville not far from the Stokes County line. This GWR is very interesting and I have never heard of it before. I have what looks to be an old roadbed on part of my property, it stops at paved road but picks up again across the road and runs in a NW/ SE fashion. Curious to know if you have more detailed maps of more offshoot roads towards Stoneville from GWR or point me in a direction to look. Thank You


Hi Michael,

Thanks for visiting NCpedia and sharing this.  That's a really great question.

For starters, you might be interested in the 1794 "Fry-Jefferson" map -- portions of the trading path are indicated, including those that reached into what may be close to Stokes County.  Here is a link to the map, presented online by NC Maps at the University of North Carolina --

You may also be interested in this 2008 article on the Trading Path from the Journal of Backcountry Studies.  It may have some useful information as well as sources or referenced maps --

My other suggestion is to contact the North Carolina Office of State Archaeology at the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources.  They should be a good resource for suggesting any additional maps that might show parts of the road or resources that might connect your area with the road.

I hope this helps!  Good luck!

Kelly Agan, NC Government & Heritage Library


I need a good map of the great wagon road


Hi Amber,

This entry has a map of the Great Wagon Road.  If you click on the image of the map on the right side of the text, you'll go to a larger image of the map.

Thanks for visiting NCpedia!

Kelly Agan, Government & Heritage Library



Add a comment

PLEASE NOTE: NCpedia provides the comments feature as a way for viewers to engage with the resources. Comments are not published until reviewed by NCpedia editors at the State Library of NC, and the editors reserve the right to not publish any comment submitted that is considered inappropriate for this resource. NCpedia will not publish personal contact information in comments, questions, or responses. If you would like a reply by email, note that some email servers, such as public school accounts, are blocked from accepting messages from outside email servers or domains. If you prefer not to leave an email address, check back at your NCpedia comment for a reply. Please allow one business day for replies from NCpedia. Complete guidelines are available at