Segregation

Segregation
4-H and Home Demonstration among African Americans: North Carolina's African American Extension Service
by Manor, Amy, Pronovost, Emily. Originally published as "4-H and Home Demonstration among African Americans", Green 'N' Growing, The History of Home Demonstration and 4-H Youth Development in North Carolina, NCSU Libraries. [...] (from NCSU Libraries.)
African Americans - Part 4: Segregation
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
American Indian Churches in Eastern NC
by Oakley, Christopher Arris. American Indian Churches in Eastern NC Originally published as "Communities of Faith: American Indian Churches in Eastern North Carolina" by Dr. Christopher Arris Oakley Reprinted with [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Applewhite, James: The Essences Of Things
by Cecelski, David S. Born in Stantonsburg, in Wilson County, in 1935, James Applewhite is one of our nation's most acclaimed poets and an English professor at Duke University. At his home by the Eno River, he told me [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Aycock, Charles Brantley
by Orr, Oliver H., Jr. Charles Brantley Aycock, governor of North Carolina, was born on a farm near Fremont in the broad, flat valley of the Neuse River. Ancestors of his father, Benjamin Aycock, and his mother, Serena [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Aycock, Charles Brantley (from Research Branch, NC OA&H)
by Hill, Michael. No North Carolina governor, with the possible exception of Zebulon B. Vance, has been as venerated and memorialized as Charles Brantley Aycock (1859-1912), with whose term in 1901 the Democratic [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Baker, Ella Josephine
by Davis, Sarajanee. Did you include Ella Baker on your list? If so, you know more than the average person about the people who started and pushed the Movement forward. Ms. Baker was born in Norfolk, Virginia. She moved [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Black Freemasonry
by Kenzer, Robert C. Black Freemasonry, like its white counterpart, promotes fellowship within a membership that engages in a wide variety of social and benevolent activities. Although black freemasonry dates back to the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Chapman, John Kenyon (Yonni)
by . John Kenyon Chapman, known as Yonni, was a life-long social justice activist, organizer, and historian who focused his academic and social career on workers' rights and African American empowerment [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Civil Rights in North Carolina
by Brown, Flora Bryant. African American Civil Rights in North Carolina by Dr. Flora Bryant Brown Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2004. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Civil Rights Sit-Ins
by McDermott, Nancie. A hot dog got it all started—the hot dog that Joe McNeil did not get to eat one day in January 1960. Nineteen years old and a graduate of Williston High School in Wilmington, McNeil was a student at [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Colored Merchants Association
by Tolbert, Lisa. For two months in the spring of 1929, a group of African American grocery store owners in Winston-Salem organized public lectures, meetings, exhibits, and food tastings that attracted large audiences [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Crabtree Creek State Park
by Agan, Kelly. Crabtree Creek State Park (William B. Umstead State Park) By Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2015 Established: 1943 GPS [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Daniels, Josephus
by Watson, Richard L. Josephus Daniels, newspaper editor, secretary of the navy, and ambassador to Mexico, was born in Washington, N.C., the fourth of five children of Josephus and Mary Cleaves Seabrook Daniels. His [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Davis, Kenny: It's Like Being At War
by Cecelski, David S. I met Kenny Davis during the recent commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Wilmington race riot of 1898. A century ago, on Nov. 10, 1898, a white mob massacred many blacks and seized the city [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Disfranchisement
by Hunt, James L. Disfranchisement refers to a constitutional amendment drafted by the 1899 North Carolina General Assembly and approved in the general election in 1900 severely limiting African Americans' right to [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Dixiecrats
by Holden, Charles J. Dixiecrats, officially members of the States' Rights Democratic Party, formed after the 1947 publication of President Harry S Truman's Committee on Civil Rights report, To Secure These Rights. This [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Eagleson II, Wilson
by Bates, Doris McLean. Wilson Vash Eagleson II A Tuskegee Airman 1920 - 2006 by Doris McLean Bates Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Fall 2003. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Epps, Lois: Zan Epps' Daughter
by Cecelski, David S. I visited Lois Epps Jones in High Plains, an Indian community north of Roxboro, in Person County. Her great-grandfather found refuge in High Plains during the Cherokee Removal. Now she is one of the [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Great Migration
by McKinley, Cynthia Risser, McKinley, Shepherd W. The Great Migration and North Carolina by Dr. Shepherd W. McKinley and Cynthia Risser McKinley Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 2006. Tar Heel Junior [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Hammocks Beach State Park
by Agan, Kelly. Hammocks Beach State Park By North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, 2015; Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, [...] (from NC Division of Parks and Recreation, NC Dept. of Natural and Cultural Resources.)
Hawkins, Reginald Armistice
by Carrier, Sarah. Dr. Reginald Armistice Hawkins, nicknamed “Hawk,” was a lifelong civil rights activist who played a central role in integrating Charlotte schools, hospitals, and public spaces, and in 1968 became the [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Helper, Hardie Hogan
by Wall, James W. Hardie Hogan Helper, abolitionist, Union soldier, journalist, and moderate Republican Reconstruction leader, was born two miles west of Mocksville, the son of Daniel J. and Sarah Brown Helper. He [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Johnson Jr., Henry Vanderbilt: The Engelhard Cafe
by Cecelski, David S. Recently, Dr. Henry Vanderbilt Johnson Jr. shared a story with me about an unsung little moment in our state's civil rights history: a cafe brawl in Engelhard, a fishing village in Hyde County. The [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Jones Lake State Park
by . Jones Lake State Park By North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, 2015 https://ncparks.gov/ Established: 1939 GPS Coordinates: 34.682743, [...] (from NC Division of Parks and Recreation, NC Dept. of Natural and Cultural Resources.)
Jones, Marvin Tupper: Pleasant Plains
by Cecelski, David S. I recently joined Marvin Tupper Jones at his family's annual reunion and fish fry. We were in Pleasant Plains, part of an extraordinary, 9-mile-long swath of land in the state's rural, northeast [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Journey of Reconciliation, 1947
by . In 1947 the Congress of Racial Equality & local citizens, black & white, protested bus segregation. Setting out from Washington, D.C., "freedom riders" tested compliance with a U.S. Supreme [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Kay, Willie Virginia Otey
by Bell-Kite, Diana, Agan, Kelly. KAY, WILLIE VIRGINIA OTEY 17 Mar. 1894 – 25 Sept. 1992 By Diana Bell-Kite, NC Museum of History and Kelly Agan, NC Government & Heritage Library, 2016 “You have [...] (from North Carolina Museum of History.)
Ku Klux Klan
by Trelease, Allen W. There have been three Ku Klux Klan KKK movements in North Carolina and the nation, similar in character but distinct organizationally and chronologically. The first Klan flourished in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lowry, Welton: The Spirit Of Henry Berry Lowry
by Cecelski, David S. On the night of Jan. 18, 1958, Welton Lowry and hundreds of other Lumbee Indians surrounded a Ku Klux Klan rally near Maxton, 90 miles south of Raleigh in Robeson County. The Lumbee launched barrages [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Lynching
by Baker, Bruce E. Lynching, the unlawful killing of a person by a mob and one of the most extreme forms of community sanction, has occurred in North Carolina on numerous occasions throughout its history. The term [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Mabley, Jackie (Moms)
by Gillespie, James D. Mabley, Jackie (Moms) by James D. Gillespie 1898–23 May 1975 (1898–23 May 1975), comedienne and actress, was born Loretta Mary Aiken in Brevard, the daughter of "Uncle" Jim and Mary Aiken. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Manly, Alex
by Miller, Daniel R. Alex Manly, black newspaper editor and Republican party leader in Wilmington, published the Wilmington Daily Record, which described itself as "the only negro daily in the world." The Record covered [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Speech in Rocky Mount, N.C., November 1962
by . A speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. in Rocky Mount on November 27, 1962, has drawn much attention. In that address, before 1,800 in the gymnasium at Booker T. Washington High School (that building [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Mitchell, E.R.: Backyard Barbecue
by Cecelski, David S. E.R. "Mitch" Mitchell is the proprietor of Mitchell's Barbecue Restaurant in Wilson. Barbecue is one of the most cherished of all Southern foods, and Mitchell's is one of the few places that still [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Mitchell, John W.
by Stewart, James. Mitchell, John William By James Stewart, NCSU Libraries, 2015 Originally published as "Life of An Extension Agent: John W. Mitchell," Special Collections News, NCSU Libraries, [...] (from NCSU Libraries.)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
by Gavins, Raymond, Vocci, Robert Blair. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People by Raymond Gavins, 2006 Additional research provided by Robert Blair Vocci. The National Association for the Advancement of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Newbold, Nathan Carter
by Burns, A. M., III. Nathan Carter Newbold, educator, public servant, and longtime director of the Division of Negro Education in North Carolina, was born in Pasquotank County, near Elizabeth City, and lived his entire [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Society in 1953 and in 2003
by Freeze, Gary. North Carolina has always been a place where the old and the new live side by side. The time period from 1953 to 2003 is no different. Although patterns from the past, such as eating barbecue or [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Plessy v. Ferguson
by Roundtree, Lynn. Plessy v. Ferguson by Lynn Roundtree, 2006 In 1896 the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the so-called separate-but-equal segregation of whites and blacks in public facilities in its decision on [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Powell, Sallie: Mr. Dewitt's Lake
by Cecelski, David S. I visited Sallie Powell in Elizabethtown to learn about an all-but-forgotten landmark of African-American history: the swimming beaches and campground at Jones Lake. Created in 1939, Jones Lake State [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Princeville
by Hill, Michael. Princeville, an Edgecombe County town incorporated in 1885, originated in 1865 as a resettlement community for ex-slaves. At the close of the Civil War, when Union troops occupied the area around [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Red Shirts
by Hunt, James L. The Red Shirts were armed gangs of white men acting as a terrorist and intimidation wing of the Democratic Party in the state elections of 1898 and 1900. The Red Shirts received their name from loose [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Reedy Creek State Park
by Agan, Kelly. Reedy Creek State Park By Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2016 Established: 1950 GPS Coordinates: 35.833731, -78.760208 Size: 1,234 [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Rosenwald Schools: Helping Communities Help Themselves
by Agan, Kelly. Have you ever heard of Jim Crow laws? In the 19th and 20th centuries, Jim Crow laws created mandatory separation of races. And they affected all aspects of everyday life for black Americans. Jim [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Royal Ice Cream Sit-In
by Daniels, Dennis F. The 1960 Greensboro sit-ins sparked a national movement but were not the first such action. Individual and group protest actions prior to 1960, generally isolated and often without wider impact, took [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Royal Ice Cream Sit-In, Durham, North Carolina
by Agan, Kelly. Royal Ice Cream Sit-In, Durham, North Carolina By Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2019 Have you ever heard about the 1957 ice cream shop protest in Durham, North [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Sarah Keys:  Staying Seated to Stand Up for Her Rights
by Agan, Kelly. Take a minute to imagine that you couldn’t sit where you wanted to on a bus because of the color of your skin or where you came from. How would that make you feel? What would you do? This article is [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
School Desegregation
by Currie, Jefferson. School Desegregation "With Deliberate Speed: North Carolina and School Desegregation" by Jefferson Currie II Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2004. Tar Heel [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Scruggs, Lawson Andrew
by Murray, Elizabeth Reid. Scruggs, Lawson Andrew by Elizabeth Reid Murray, 1994 Related Entries: African American; Civil Rights; Historically Black Colleges 15 Jan. 1857–1914 Lawson Andrew Scruggs, physician, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Segregation
by Hatley Wadelington, Flora. Segregation in the 1920s "Assigned Places" by Flora Hatley Wadelington Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 2004. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Simkins v. Cone
by Thomas, Karen Kruse. In 1962 dentist George Simkins, physician Alvin Blount, and other African American physicians and their patients sued Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital and Wesley Long Community Hospital in Greensboro, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slade, James: People That Do Right
by Cecelski, David S. Dr. James Slade is the sort of impossibly old-fashioned doctor who still makes house calls and has never thought about joining an HMO. For 35 years he has been practicing pediatrics and general [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
by Brabham, Robin. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education by Robin Brabham, 2006 See also: Pupil Assignment Act. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, argued before the U.S. Supreme [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
The Freedmen's Colony on Roanoke Island
by . Roanoke Island was the setting for an historic experiment during the Civil War. Following the island’s occupation by Union forces in 1862, it became a haven for African-American families from [...] (from National Park Service.)
The Green Book
by Agan, Kelly, Scott, Jordan. The Green Book, also known as The Negro Motorist Green Book, later known as The Negro Traveler’s Green Book in 1952, and finally the Travelers’ Green Book in 1960, was a guide for black travelers [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
United States Colored Troops: Fighting for Freedom
by Haley, John H. United States Colored Troops: Fighting for Freedom By John H. Haley, PhD Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian 50:2 (spring [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Waters, Vincent Stanislaus
by Carroll, Grady L. E. Vincent Stanislaus Waters, Roman Catholic prelate, was born in Roanoke, Va., the son of Michael Bernard, a railroad machinist, and Mary Francis Crowley Waters. He attended St. Andrews School [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
White Citizens' Councils
by Schutz, J. Christopher, McRae, Elizabeth Gillespie. White Citizens' Councils were established during the 1950s in reaction to federal initiatives to end racial segregation in the South. Historically, they were similar to the various white supremacy [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
White Patriots of North Carolina
by McRae, Elizabeth Gillespie. On 22 Aug. 1955, following the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 356 men and women formed the White Patriots of North Carolina to circumvent the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Williams, Mabel: Standing Up To The Klan
by Cecelski, David S. I interviewed Mabel Williams two years after her legendary husband's death. They both grew up in Monroe at a time when lynchings were common and many things that we take for granted were marked [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Williams, Robert Franklin
by Agan, Kelly, Scott, Jordan. Williams, Robert Franklin by Jordan Scott and Kelly Agan, Government & Heritage Library, 2019. 26 Feb. 1925-15 Oct. 1996 Robert F. Williams was an American [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Williams, Willis: Life And Death At Devils Gut
by Cecelski, David S. In September of 1957, a Martin County teenager named Willis Williams had the courage to tell the truth about the death of an African-American college student named Joe Cross. His story shocked North [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Wilmington Race Riot
by Faulkner, Ronnie W. The Wilmington Race Riot of 10 Nov. 1898 constituted the most serious incident of racial violence in the history of North Carolina. It has been variously called a revolution, a race war, and more [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wilmington Race Riot
by Umfleet, LeRae. The Wilmington Race Riot - 1898 by LeRae UmfleetNC Office of Archives and History, 2010. See also: Wilmington Race Riot (Encyclopedia of North Carolina); Silver [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
Wright, Marion Allen
by Copeland, J. Isaac. Wright, Marion Allen by J. Isaac Copeland, 1996 18 Jan. 1894–14 Feb. 1983 Marion Allen Wright, attorney, citizen of the two Carolinas, and firm supporter of civil rights, was born in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Young, Allen Lawrence
by Murray, Elizabeth Reid. Allen Lawrence Young, community leader, educator, and founder of the Wake Forest Normal and Industrial School for Negroes (1905–57), was born in northern Wake County, the eldest of ten children of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
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