The Poole Bills , also called "Poole Monkey Bills," were a series of attempts in the 1920s by General Assembly  member D. Scott Poole  to outlaw the teaching of evolution in state-supported schools. Inspired by actions of the Tennessee legislature that precipitated the infamous Scopes Trial  of 1920, and backed by fundamentalist forces centered around a committee of 100 churchmen of the North Carolina Presbyterian Synod, Poole introduced his first bill in 1925 and saw it defeated by a narrow margin. In February 1927 Poole's bill was reintroduced and defeated in committee by a margin of 25 to 11 after a rousing speech by Paul J. Ryan, a law student at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill . Victory for the bill's opponents was widely attributed to some presentations and debates in Charlotte  sponsored by former students of Horace Williams  (1858-1940), the controversial philosophy professor at UNC-Chapel Hill.
The Evolution Controvery in North Carolina in the 1920's, UNC Libraries:
Primary Sources: http://www.lib.unc.edu/ncc/evolution/primarysources.html 
Glossary: http://www.lib.unc.edu/ncc/evolution/glossary.html 
1 January 2006 | Mills, Jerry Leath