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Samarcand Manor

by Julian M. Pleasants, 2006

See also: Samarcand (Research Branch, NCO&H)

Samarcand Building, 1926. Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_187. Samarcand Manor, officially the State Home and Industrial School for Girls, was a humane correctional institution for young women established near Eagle Springs by the North Carolina state legislature in 1918. The purpose of the school was to reclaim and train delinquent girls by providing a "homelike place where those who have fallen may find temporary shelter, and under a firm yet kind discipline, begin to live morally." The school, built on 230 acres in Samarcand (named for the Muslim city conquered by Alexander the Great that served as his empire's seat of learning and culture), was one of the first institutions of its type in the South. The original clients were young girls or women who had been convicted of being prostitutes, vagrants, or habitual drunkards or who were guilty of any misdemeanor suggesting that they were "not virtuous." There were no definite terms, but the clients could not be held more than three years and were to be released on good behavior.

"Our Three Youngest." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call#: N_98_9_189.Agnes B. MacNaughton became Samarcand's first superintendent, and by 1919 more than 200 women between the ages of 10 and 30 had arrived. In the 1920s the daily program emphasized Bible study, manners, cleanliness, music, nature, and sports in addition to the regular academic subjects. The girls also received vocational training in sewing, weaving, canning, laundry work, and poultry and dairying activities. The program stressed self-reliance and pride in one's work. Between 1928 and 1930 a total of 296 girls were admitted, most between the ages of 12 and 16. By 1930 Samarcand had a hospital and an accredited high school.

In 1931, 16 Samarcand inmates set fire to two dorms and were charged with arson, then a capital crime. While awaiting trial, the girls burned their jail cells. Eight of the 12 involved were eventually sent to prison. Samarcand survived this notorious 1931 incident and other difficulties but was unable to withstand the financial strains of the Great Depression and the siphoning off of staff during World War II. In 1974 the state changed the name of the institution to Samarcand Manor and placed it under the purview of the North Carolina Department of Human Resources, Youth Division. Samarcand became one of five state training schools designed to rehabilitate delinquent children (both male and female) between the ages of 10 and 17. The school shifted its emphasis to treatment and therapy. In the early 2000s Samarcand had approximately 190 clients (40 females and 150 males) and 210 staff members.

References: "Playtime, children on the wagon." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_188.

Ida Briggs Henderson, "The Work at Samarcand," The State (4 Apr. 1936).

Lisbeth Parrott, "Samarcand Opens Door of Hope to 1,000th Girl in Tenth Year," Raleigh News and Observer, 7 Oct. 1928.

Samarcand Manor: 50th Anniversary, 1918-1968 (1968).

Additional Resources:

State Home and Industrial School for Girls (Samarcand, N.C.). Biennial report of the Board of Directors and Superintendent of the State Home and Industrial School for Girls, Samarcand Manor, Samarcand, N.C. Samarcand, N.C. [N.C.]: The School. 1926-1938. http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/ref/collection/p16062coll9/id/4894 (accessed May 24, 2013).

Samarkand Manor. GoogleMaps.

"Samarcand." N.C. Highway Historical Marker K-34, N.C. Office of Archives & History. http://www.ncmarkers.com/Markers.aspx?sp=Markers&k=Markers&sv=K-34

McLaurin, Melton Alonza, and Russell, Anne. The Wayward Girls of Samarcand: A true story of the American South. Wilmington, N.C.: Bradley Creek Press. 2012.

Steelman, Ben. "Review - McLaurin, Russell write a gripping yarn." StarNews Media. July 8, 2012. http://www.starnewsonline.com/article/20120708/articles/120709845

Gilkeson, Florence. "Samarkand Makes Case to Stay Open." ThePilot.com. September 24, 2009.  #

Image Credits:

Samarcand Building, 1926. Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_187.

"Playtime, children on the wagon." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_188.

"Our Three Youngest." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call#: N_98_9_189.

Origin - location: 

Comments

Comment: 

i was also on samarkand manors drill team in the 80s we performed in parades and other funtions.

Comment: 

i was at samarkand manor in the 80 s i remember most of the cottages names norton was down the hill then you came up to fry cottage which was for girls then there was irland cottage and my favorite cottage was tuffs between irland cottage was the rec center and title 20 was up stairs above that and of course there was carroll hall that place was really a mess back then so much was happening the people worked there couldnt keep up with everything you had 12 to 16 year olds working around smoking cigarttes and being jus bad asses lolglad them days are long pass i still thing about samarkand every now and then.

Comment: 

My Aunt was sent to Samarcand sometime between 1958-1961. Her name was
Nancy Jane Bowman then. Does anyone remember her?

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I was there from 1965 to 1967. I was at Carrol Hall, Gardner and New cottage. Good times and bad. Strangely I remember mostly good. Even though sometimes we were on silence and couldn't say the word boy, shining floors. Half day of school then assignment. I had sewing, dinner cook, ice plant. Learned a lot.

Comment: 

i was thare about the same time...

Comment: 

I was there for 1year 68 to 69 I was put a the sort cottage there forgot the name now as you went to the front in
Intake it was on the right I believe it was 3. Stories . all you had to do to be was think to yourself about running and locked you in a room from 7 to 30 days with only PJs to wear and one bed and a huge window with super thick wire on them. I was there for 7mos. Then transferred to Holland hall. Were girls put there mattress on each bedroom door and all exits at night. We cit grass in the fields with swing blades once a snack crossed over my foot I flipped out and because I won't go back out there I was locked up. When you hair got to long they wold make you cut or get a perm that made your hair were yo could barely get a com thru it. There was once a month family was allowed to visit if they brought you candy you had to eat at the visit you had to throw it away. You had to were old timely blended shirts button up shirts. Once we got a shipment of Jackson boys scool shores and we had to west them. We called them bragains . I worked in the girls Hall kitchen and got my honor pin so I could walk around by myself. Never made it to honor girl with escort which would mean I could take other girl with no pin around . once when I worked in the kitchen I use to put ice in the girls milk at dinners cause the milk was cows milk and would be put on the table a hour or on the tables before the food was served. It was so nasty I've made it bit better. Once I wsd suppose to be able to go off campus with my folks for 3hours but no more than 50miles away. Instead they got me eating a Cook if saved after lunch they took my honor button away on Tuesday cause on Wednesday I was suppose to go off campus then on Thursday they gave it back.
I went in on June 1968 I go out in may 1969
. my time there was not a happy one

Comment: 

I learned something's from that place. But all that learning didn't help once I was released I hitched hiked across the country back when it was safe to do it. Not a chance in hell I'd do it today. I was a heroin addict in the strip in Atlanta from 1970 to 1972 saw allot of my friends overdoze and a few died. Starting smoking pot at the age of 16 and not stopping til 2014. I went thru every drug there back then . just not the crack or coke thing. Do I regreat all the drug use YES . Do I regreat hurting my folks YES. Running away from home , not going to school, not getting a education was a big thing I did to myself was the biggest thing I retreat . I had a child a daughter at 19 she is 43 today and I couldn't be more proud of her she got her education and is now a director of a doctors office and had 2 girls. That's the one thing in my life that went right. Alone with my marriage to pat husband now of 30 years. Samarkand manor was just a place I went to on all my many travels in life. I'll never forget it.

Comment: 

I was at Samarcand 1967-1971 & I don't know what possessed me to even look up that place on the internet but I am glad I did. I've spent the last 50 years thinking something was wrong with me that I was not good enough & I was this terrible person no one could love that if my parents did not want me who would. All that was in my head & the people that knew me before Ssmarcsnd & the people I felt responsible for sending me there are all passed away now. I remembered being this happy outgoing active kid who excelled in school acted in the neighborhood community drama classes & musical talent shows I played short stop on the neighborhood baseball team. My only crime, I was assaulted twice before I was 12 years old & I began to act out. My parents did not have time to even notice that their baby girl had changed & definitely did not take the time to find out why. When I finally came home my dad apologized to me he said if he'd known they were going to keep me he would never have let my mom take me to the court system. I never put much stock in his apology until I read some of the comments posted by some of the girls. My judge also used the phrase sentenced to an "unlimited" time. At 12 i did not even know what that meant. Reading everyone's comments brought me closure. I had spent so many years trying to block out those years that it left a void in my memory I just had 4 years that were just gone & everyone living now that knows me thinks the rumors they heard about me when I was a kid are true & there is no one still living that can dispute those rumors that I was this bad kid. I am truly a good person was married 20 years until I realized I did not need anyone else's validation of my worth so I walked away. I have children who I never allowed to truly bond with me cuz I was afraid I'd disappoint them too scared to be responsible for them cuz I thought I'd fail as a parent cuz no one ever showed me how to be one. Turns out I have great kids contributing members to society. I did a good job & thanks to all if you & your post I'm finally free of that place in my head. I was right it wasn't my fault now I can go on with life. Now I get to live life.

Comment: 

its ok.. we all went thru it...

Comment: 

I was at Samarcand from the beginning of 1960 thru June 1963. Miss Reva Mitchell was there at that time. I feel I was fortunate to have been placed there. It made me the person I am today. I don't recall being mistreated (as I was when I was in an unnamed ohanage). We did cut grass with a sling blade and learned how to can, sew, type, work in the dairy and kitchen. I missed my sister and brothers who were in an orphanage. Samarkand made arrangements for me to see my siblings on two occasions and made arrangements for me to have mass once a week. I feel fortunate to have been there.

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This article is from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell. Copyright © 2006 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher. For personal use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other use directly to the publisher.

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