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African Americans
1830-1850: Antebellum NC Begins
by Watson, Harry L. 1830-1850: Antebellum NC Begins Originally published as "Winning the Fight for Progress-- North Carolina's Antebellum years begin: 1830-1850" by Harry L. Watson Reprinted with permission from [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
1920s: A Decade of Change
by Silverstein, Barrett A. Have you ever heard the phrase “the roaring twenties?” Also known as the Jazz Age, the decade of the 1920s featured economic prosperity and carefree living for many. The decade began with a roar and [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
9th Wonder
by Eckard, Max. Patrick Denard Douthit, better known by his stage name, 9th Wonder (or, since 2010, 9thmatic), is a record producer and record executive from Winston Salem, NC. He is also a Grammy award-winning [...] (from NCpedia.)
Ad Valorem Taxation of Slaves
by Faulkner, Ronnie W. Ad valorem taxation of slaves was a major political issue in antebellum North Carolina and continued during the Civil War as a manifestation of the divisions between the planter class and the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans & the Revolution
by Crow, Jeffrey J. The story of how the original thirteen American colonies broke away from Great Britain and formed the United States is well known. Less well known is how African-Americans felt and what they did [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
African Americans - Part 1: Introduction
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E., Williams, Wiley J., Wescott, Joseph W., II. African Americans by Roberta Sue Alexander, Rodney D. Barfield, and Steven E. Nash, 2006 Additional research provided by Joseph W. Wescott II and Wiley J. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 2: Life under slavery
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 3: Emancipation
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 4: Segregation
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 5: Emerging roles
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 6: References
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African and African American Storytelling
by Wilson, Madafo Lloyd. African and African American Storytelling By Madafo Lloyd Wilson Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Spring 2002. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church
by Criner, Allyson C. African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church is a Christian denomination dating back to 1787, when a number of black worshippers withdrew from the interracial St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church
by Williams, Wiley J. African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church by Wiley J. Williams, 2006 See also: African Americans; Simon Green Atkins; Andrew J. Cartwright; John Campbell Dancy, Jr.; James Walker Hood; [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Agricultural Economy of Antebellum Life
by LeCount, Charles. One hundred fifty years ago, nearly all North Carolinians made their living by farming. And even the majority of those who did not actually farm were still tied to the state’s agricultural economy: [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
American Missionary Association
by Williams, Wiley J. The American Missionary Association (AMA) was a Christian educational organization founded on 3 Sept. 1846 in Albany, N.Y., through the antislavery coalition of the Union Missionary Society, the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Angelou, Maya
by Horton, Emily S. Maya Angelou was best known as a poet and the best-selling author of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1970). Angelou was also a singer, dancer, Grammy-winning composer, director, and actress. She was [...] (from NCpedia.)
Anti-Slavery Movement in North Carolina
by Lasley, Rebecca Graham. Appearances can be deceiving. At first glance, the wagon pictured to the right looks like an ordinary farm vehicle of the early 1800s. It consists of a simple wooden box mounted on wheels that are [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Atkins, Simon Green
by Gainor, Samuel M. Atkins received his early schooling in Haywood. He was an astute student and progressed to teaching in the town school before he enrolled in St. Augustine's Normal Collegiate Institute, now St. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Baker, Ella
by Townes, Mitzi. Ella Baker was born on December 13, 1903 in Norfolk , Va. When Ella was eight years old her family moved to Littleton, North Carolina. In 1918, Ella Baker entered Shaw University, a Baptist boarding [...] (from NCpedia.)
Barber-Scotia College
by Wadelington, Charles W. Barber-Scotia College was founded in Concord in 1867 as Scotia Seminary, a Presbyterian preparatory school for young, newly freed African American women. For more than a generation the institute [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Barrino, Fantasia
by Horton, Emily S. Fantasia Barrino 1984- by Emily Horton NC Government & Heritage Library, 2012. Related Entries: Clay Aiken; Fantasia Barrino; Kellie Pickler; Chris Daughtry; Bucky Covington; Scotty [...] (from NCpedia.)
Bassett Affair
by Johnson, Lloyd. The Bassett Affair significantly enhanced the ideal of academic freedom in North Carolina and the nation. The controversy involved Tarboro native John Spencer Bassett, who taught history at Trinity [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Black Codes
by Harris, William C. Black Codes by William C. Harris, 2006 See Also: Slave Codes Soon after the Civil War, southern states governed by Presidential Reconstruction (1865-67) adopted racially discriminatory laws, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Black Freemasonry
by Kenzer, Robert C. Black Freemasonry, like its white counterpart, promotes fellowship within a membership that engages in a wide variety of social and benevolent activities. Although black freemasonry dates back to the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Black Panther Party
by Schutz, J. Christopher. The Black Panther Party was founded in Oakland, Calif., in October 1966. The controversial organization espoused black pride and black control of neighborhood institutions, preached self-defense [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Blue Lodges
by McGee, Barry. Blue Lodges were secret groups organized to defend slavery and the "southern way of life" in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The new law, sponsored by Senator Stephen A. Douglas of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Blues
by Holden, Charles J., Baker, Bruce E. North Carolina boasts significant contributions to the musical tradition known as the blues. Throughout its formative decades, the blues was the music of solo artists rather than groups, with the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bond, Hannah
by Rodriguez, Crystal. Hannah Bond was an enslaved African American woman who escaped bondage and wrote the earliest known novel written by an African American woman. The unpublished novel was not rediscovered until it was [...] (from NCpedia.)
Brown, Calvin Scott
by Stephenson, E. Frank, Jr. Calvin Scott Brown, educator, editor, minister, and advisor, was born in Salisbury of black and Scotch-Irish ancestry. His father was Henry Brown, a farmer, and his mother was Flora Brown. Brought up [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Brown, Charlotte Hawkins
by Burns, A. M., III. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, a pioneer in education and race relations, was born on a farm near Henderson, the granddaughter of a slave. Her mother, Caroline Frances Hawkins, moved to Cambridge, Mass., [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Brown, Charlotte Hawkins
by Anonymous. Emancipation from slavery in 1865 offered a new and prosperous lifestyle for some African Americans in North Carolina. Some became landowners or politicians; others started their own businesses. Yet [...] (from Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum.)
Buck Dancing
by Baker, Bruce E. Buck Dancing by Bruce E. Baker, 2006 See also: Clogging; Step Dancing. Buck dancing is a folk dance that originated among African Americans during the era of slavery. It was largely [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Burial Customs
by DiNome, William G. Burial Customs by William G. DiNome, 2006 See also: Funerals; Town Creek Indian Mound. The nature of the specific burial customs that may have existed among the people inhabiting the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cartwright, Andrew
by Cross, Jerry L. Andrew J. Cartwright, minister and agent of the American Colonization Society, was born in Elizabeth City under circumstances as yet unknown: some contend that he was the son of slave parents and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Chance, William Claudius, Sr.
by Caldwell, John T. William Claudius Chance, Sr., educator and humanitarian, was born in Parmele. His parents were W. V. and Alice Chance; his grandparents, who reared him, were Bryant and Penethia Chance; all were [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum
by Stoesen, Alexander R. Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum by Alexander R. Stoesen, 2006 See also: Brown, Charlotte Hawkins; Palmer Memorial Institute; Museums The Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum is located in eastern [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Chavis, John
by Parramore, Barbara M. John Chavis, preacher and teacher, was probably the "indentured servant named John Chavis" mentioned in the inventory of the estate of Halifax attorney James Milner in 1773, though little is [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cheatham, Henry Plummer
by Gatewood, Willard B., Jr. Henry Plummer Cheatham, politician, educator, and racial spokesman, was born to a house slave on a plantation near Henderson. Treated with favor by his white father, a prominent planter, Cheatham [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Chesnutt, Charles Waddell
by Andrews, William L. Chesnutt, Charles Waddell by William L. Andrews, 1979 20 June 1858–15 Nov. 1932 Charles Waddell Chesnutt, writer, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the first child of Andrew Jackson Chesnutt and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Civil Rights in North Carolina
by Brown, Flora Bryant. African American Civil Rights in North Carolina by Dr. Flora Bryant Brown Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2004. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Civil Rights Movement- Part 2: Roots of Civil Rights Activism in North Carolina
by Price, William S., Jr., Criner, Allyson C. Part 1: Introduction; Part 2: Roots of Civil Rights Activism in North Carolina; Part 3: Brown v. Board of Education and White Resistance to School Desegregation; Part 4: Integration Efforts in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Civil Rights Sit-Ins
by McDermott, Nancie. A hot dog got it all started—the hot dog that Joe McNeil did not get to eat one day in January 1960. Nineteen years old and a graduate of Williston High School in Wilmington, McNeil was a student at [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
by Cole, Olen. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) "Work and Opportunity: African Americans in the CCC" by Dr. Olen Cole Jr. Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 2010. Tar [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Clansman, The
by Faulkner, Ronnie W. The Clansman, a novel recounting the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the so-called redemption of the South by the Ku Klux Klan, was written by North Carolina author Thomas Dixon Jr. (1864-1946) and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Clinton, George
by Franke, Matthew. George Clinton (nicknamed "the Prime Minister of Funk" and "Dr. Funkenstein") is a singer, songwriter, and producer best known as the leader of the popular funk bands Parliament and Funkadelic [...] (from NCpedia.)
Coleman Manufacturing Company
by Baker, Bruce E. The Coleman Manufacturing Company in Concord was the first black-owned cotton mill in the United States. Warren C. Coleman was born a slave in Cabarrus County on 25 Mar. 1849. At the age of 18, only [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Coleman, Warren Clay
by Krieger, Marvin. Warren Clay Coleman, manufacturer, was the illegitimate son of Rufus Clay Barringer, afterward a Confederate general, and Roxanna Coleman, a slave owned by Daniel Coleman, Sr., of Concord. Prior to [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Colonization Societies
by Mitchell, Memory F., Canipe, Jeremy T. Colonization Societies were organized in the early nineteenth century to promote the relocation of African Americans, particularly free blacks, to places such as Haiti, Liberia, the American Midwest, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Colored Farmers' Alliance
by Losse, Helen. The Colored Farmers' Alliance was created when an agricultural depression hit the South around 1870 and farmers began to organize themselves into radical political groups. It paralleled the white [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Colored Merchants Association
by Tolbert, Lisa. For two months in the spring of 1929, a group of African American grocery store owners in Winston-Salem organized public lectures, meetings, exhibits, and food tastings that attracted large audiences [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Commission on Interracial Cooperation
by Williams, Wiley J. The Commission on Interracial Cooperation (CIC), founded in 1919 with support from the Julius Rosenwald Fund and based in Atlanta, was dedicated to the improvement of race relations in the South. In [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Congress of Racial Equality
by Gavins, Raymond. The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), founded in Chicago in 1942, crusaded for equality through nonviolence and integration. It came to North Carolina on a 1947 southern bus during a "Journey of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Constitutional Convention, 1868: "Black Caucus"
by Ijames, Earl. During the antebellum era—the years leading up to the Civil War—North Carolina’s population of free people of color blossomed. This group included American Indians, African Americans, and Americans [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Contrabands
by Norris, David A. Contrabands were slaves who escaped to Union lines during the Civil War. When the conflict began, the North's aim was primarily to preserve the Union, not to end slavery. Slaves who escaped to Union [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Dancy, John Campbell, Jr.
by Krieger, Marvin. John Campbell Dancy Jr., editor and public official, was born in Tarboro, the son of John C. Dancy, Sr., a slave who became a freeman and, after the Civil War, was a builder and contractor and an [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
David Walker's Appeal
by Hunter, Crystal. Born in Wilmington, N.C. in 1785, to a free mother and an enslaved father, David Walker, although deemed free by law, was no stranger to the “avaricious” (a term he uses throughout the Appeal to [...] (from NCpedia.)
Davis, Gary
by Bastin, Bruce. Gary Davis, a blind black street singer and minister, was born in Laurens, S.C., to a farming family and was raised by his grandmother. As a young man he joined the steady stream of rural blacks who [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Day, Thomas
by Wrenn, Tony P. Thomas Day, cabinetmaker, was the son of Morning S. Day (b. ca. 1766 in Virginia), but his father is unknown. Thomas Day married Aquilla Wilson (b. ca. 1806) of Halifax County, Va., in Halifax on 7 [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Day, Thomas
by Umfleet, LeRae. Thomas Day, a cabinetmaker by trade, is the most celebrated of North Carolina’s antebellum craftsmen. He was born in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, in 1801 to a family of free, landowning African [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Death to the Klan March
by Schutz, J. Christopher, Stoesen, Alexander R. The "Death to the Klan" March, which took place in Greensboro in late 1979, involved a violent showdown between members of the Communist Workers Party (CWP), the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), and a neo-Nazi [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Delany, Henry Beard
by Reid, Elizabeth Davis. Henry Beard Delany was the first black man to become an Episcopal bishop in North Carolina and only the second in the United States; he was also an educator. He was born in St. Mary's, Ga., the son [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Double Voting
by Barton, Bruce. Double Voting: A Personal Account "'Double Voting' in Robeson County: A Reminder of an Unequal Past" by Bruce Barton Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Dred
by Inscoe, John C. Dred, published in 1856, was Harriet Beecher Stowe's much-anticipated sequel to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) in which she sought to further fan the flames of antislavery sentiment. The book was a [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Dudley, James Benson
by Warlick, Kenneth. James Benson Dudley, educator and college president, was born in Wilmington to John Bishop and Annie Hatch Dudley, slaves of Edward B. Dudley (1789–1855), governor of North Carolina from 31 Dec. 1836 [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Duncan, Samuel Edward, Jr.
by Edinger, Lois V. Duncan, Samuel Edward, Jr., educator and college president, was born in Madisonville, Ky., the oldest of seven children of Samuel E. and Lena B. Duncan. At a time when blacks did not find it easy to [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment
by Causey, Ellen Fitzgibbons. Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment consisted of runaway slaves who served as English troops under the last royal governor of Virginia, Lord John Dunmore. In November 1775 Dunmore, who had wearied of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Eagleson II, Wilson
by Bates, Doris McLean. Wilson Vash Eagleson II A Tuskegee Airman 1920 - 2006 by Doris McLean Bates Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Fall 2003. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Early Settlement
by Goldfield, David. During the late 17th century, settlement in North Carolina proceeded from Virginia migration, first into the Albemarle region, then into the Pamlico district. By 1710, the new sparsely settled [...] (from North Carolina Atlas Revisited.)
Elder, Alfonso
by Reid, G. W. Alfonso Elder, college president, was the son of Lucy Lillian Phinizy and Thomas J. Elder, of Sandersville, Ga., who were also the parents of Blanche and Charles Elder. Alfonso received his early [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Elizabeth City State University
by Wadelington, Charles W. Elizabeth City State University by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: University of North Carolina System Elizabeth City State University in Elizabeth City was founded in 1891 as the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Ellison, Stewart
by Reid, Elizabeth Davis. During 1852–54 Ellison was employed in Raleigh in the construction of several Fayetteville Street buildings following a widely destructive December 1851 fire; he also worked on the first buildings at [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Emancipation Day
by Towles, Louis P. Emancipation Day by Louis P. Towles, 2006 Emancipation Day in North Carolina was initiated on 1 Jan. 1865 at Union-occupied New [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Equal Rights League
by Justesen, Benjamin R. The North Carolina State Equal Rights League, founded in 1865, grew out of the state's first freedmen's convention, held in Raleigh on 29 Sept. 1865. Although the state was ruled by Presidential [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Era of Progress and Promise: Book overview
by Underhill, Michelle Czaikowski. Published in 1910, An Era of Progress and Promise documents topics discussed and explored at the Clifton Conference, held August 18-20, 1908 at the home of W. N. Hartshorn in Clifron, Massachusetts. [...] (from NC Digital Collections.)
Era of Progress and Promise: Browse biographies
by Allen, Christy E. Era of Progress and Promise: Browse biographies by Christy E. Allen, 2009. Book compiled by W. N. Hartshorn of Clifton, Massachusetts in 1910, concerning the Clifton Conference of [...] (from NC Digital Collections.)
Era of Progress and Promise: Browse institutions by location
by Allen, Christy E. Era of Progress and Promise: Browse institutions by location by Christy E. Allen, 2009. Book compiled by W. N. Hartshorn of Clifton, Massachusetts in 1910, concerning the Clifton Conference of [...] (from NC Digital Collections.)
Era of Progress and Promise: Browse instutions by name
by Allen, Christy E. Era of Progress and Promise: Browse institutions by name by Christy E. Allen, 2009. Book compiled by W. N. Hartshorn of Clifton, Massachusetts in 1910, concerning the Clifton Conference of [...] (from NC Digital Collections.)
Estatoe Path
by Moore, David G. Estatoe Path was a long-established Indian trail that linked the eighteenth-century Cherokee Lower Towns of northwestern South Carolina and northeastern Georgia with the French Broad River Valley in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Etchoe, Battle of
by Anderson, William L. The Battle of Etchoe took place during the Cherokee War of 1760-61 between the Cherokee and the English. That war, a subconflict within the French and Indian War, began when whites murdered a number [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Evans, Henry
by Rives, Ralph Hardee. Henry Evans, popular black preacher, was credited with being "the father of the Methodist Church, white and black, in Fayetteville, and the best preacher of his time in that quarter," according to [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Exodusters
by Steelman, Lala Carr. Exodusters were African Americans who fled North Carolina because of economic and political grievances after the Reconstruction era. Although there was a steady trickle of black emigrants from the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Faduma, Orishatukeh
by Deveneaux, Gustav H. K. Orishatukeh Faduma, teacher and minister, was born in Guyana, South America (formerly British Guiana), to John and Omolofi Faduma, freed African slaves from Yorubaland (now in southwestern Nigeria, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Fayetteville State University
by Wadelington, Charles W. Fayetteville State University had its beginnings in 1867, when seven progressive African American citizens paid $140 for a lot on Fayetteville's Gillespie Street and converted themselves into a [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Fitzgerald, Robert George
by Krieger, Marvin. Robert George Fitzgerald, soldier, farmer, educator, and businessman, was born to Thomas Charles Fitzgerald (ca. 1808–79) and Sarah Ann Burton Fitzgerald (ca. 1818–ca. 1889) in New Castle County, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Flack, Roberta
by Franke, Matthew. Roberta Flack is a Grammy-winning singer, songwriter, and pianist renowned for her smooth, "velvety" voice. Born in Black Mountain in Buncombe County on February 10, 1937, she was one of four [...] (from NCpedia.)
Forced Migration of African Americans
by Farley, Jennifer. This African chant mourns the loss of Olaudah Equiano, an eleven-year-old boy who, in 1755, was kidnapped from his home in what is now Nigeria. He was purchased by a captain in the British Royal [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Foster, Allen
by Hollingsworth, Biff, West, Tim. Foster, Allen by Biff Hollingsworth and Tim West, Special Collections at Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2008 ? - January 24, 1936 In the summer of 1935, a [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Frank Johnson's Band
by Parramore, Thomas C. Frank Johnson's Band was a popular brass ensemble of African American musicians that played frequently at health spas, balls, tournaments, state fairs, and other occasions from the 1830s to about [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freedman's Savings and Trust Company
by Tetterton, Beverly. Freedman's Savings and Trust Company by Beverly Tetterton, 2006   The Freedman's Savings and Trust Company, universally known as the Freedman's Bank, was chartered on 3 Mar. 1865. It [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freedmen's Bureau
by Alexander, Roberta Sue. The Freedmen's Bureau, officially the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, was created by Congress in 1865 after months of debate. The Freedmen's Bureau controlled abandoned and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freedmen's Conventions
by Jones, H. G. Freedmen's conventions in 1865 and 1866 voiced the aspirations of North Carolina blacks, both those previously classified as free and former slaves. The Civil War had been over only five months when [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freeman, Ralf
by Woodard, John R. Ralf Freeman, Baptist minister, was born a slave in Anson County; his parents are not known. He belonged to John Culpeper, a Baptist minister and pastor of the Rocky River Baptist Church, Anson [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Frinks, Golden
by Spicer, Shirl. With fists raised, members of the audience paid homage to “The Great Agitator” on July 24, 2004, as North Carolina laid to rest one of its greatest unsung heroes of the Civil Rights movement—Golden [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Fulton, Allen
by Bastin, Bruce. Allen, Fulton by Bruce Bastin 10 July 1907-13 Feb. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Fulton, David Bryant
by Andrews, William L. David Bryant Fulton, black polemicist and author, was born in Fayetteville to Benjamin and Lavinia Robinson Fulton. His early childhood was spent in the Fayetteville area, but he grew up in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
General Education Board
by Williams, Wiley J. The General Education Board (GEB) was a philanthropic organization endowed by the Rockefeller family and chartered in 1903 by the U.S. Congress for "the promotion of education in the United States of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Goler, William Harvey
by Krieger, Marvin. Goler, William Harvey by Marvin Krieger, 1986 1 Jan. 1846–22 Feb. 1939 William Harvey Goler, educator, church leader, and president of Livingstone College, Salisbury, was born in Halifax, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Great Migration
by McKinley, Cynthia Risser, McKinley, Shepherd W. The Great Migration and North Carolina by Dr. Shepherd W. McKinley and Cynthia Risser McKinley Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 2006. Tar Heel Junior [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Green, John Patterson
by Andrews, William L. John Patterson Green, African-American attorney, legislator, and author, was born in New Bern, the only son of John Rice Green, a tailor, and Temperance Durden Green, a seamstress after her husband's [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Greensboro Four
by Huaman, Jaime. Greensboro Four: David Richmond, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair Jr. (Jibreel Khazan), Joe McNeil Civil Rights Sit-Ins at Woolworth by Jaime Huaman, Government & Heritage Library, [...] (from NCpedia.)
Harris, Bravid Washington
by London, Lawrence F. Bravid Washington Harris, Episcopal priest and bishop, was born in Warrenton, the son of Bravid Washington and Margaret Burgess Harris. After receiving his preparatory education in Warrenton, he [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Harris, James Henry
by Alexander, Roberta Sue. James Henry Harris, North Carolina politician, was born in Granville County. Described as "a base born boy of color," he was apprenticed on 3 Aug. 1840 to Charles Allen to learn the carpenter trade; [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Henderson, William B.
by Macfie, John. William B. Henderson, African-American state senator, farmer, and resident of Middleburg, was elected to the North Carolina General Assembly in 1892 as a Republican representative from the Eleventh [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Higgs, George and the Bull City Blues
by Wells, Mike "Lightnin'". For more than sixty years, George Higgs, of Tarboro in Edgecombe County, has been playing and singing the blues in his community and in places as far away as Australia and Switzerland—carrying on a [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Holland, Annie Wealthy
by Shaber, Sarah R. Annie Wealthy Holland, educator, was born in Isle of Wight County, Va., on a plot of land contiguous to the Wealthy plantation, where her grandmother had been a slave. She was the daughter of John [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hood, James Walker
by Bell, John L. James Walker Hood, clergyman, educator, and bishop, the son of Levi and Harriet Walker Hood, was born on the farm of Ephraim Jackson in Chester County, Pa., nine miles from Wilmington, Del. His [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hopkins, Moses Aaron
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. Moses Aaron Hopkins, educator and clergyman, was born into slavery in Montgomery County, Virginia, on December 25, 1846. During the Civil War he worked as a cook in Union camps. In 1866, at age [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Horton, George Moses
by Walser, Richard. George Moses Horton, poet, was born in Northampton County, the property of William Horton who also owned his mother, his five older half sisters, and his younger brother and three sisters. As a [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hunter, Aaron Burtis
by Bennington, Catherine Myers. Aaron Burtis Hunter, Episcopal clergyman, educator, book collector, and philanthropist, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., the son of John C. and Sarah A. Clark Hunter. After graduation from public [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hunter, Charles Norfleet
by Byrd, Robert L. Charles Norfleet Hunter, educator, was born in Raleigh at the home of his father, Osborne Hunter, a Negro artisan. His mother, Mary Hunter, though a slave owned by William Dallas Haywood of Raleigh, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hyman, John Adams
by Elmore, Joseph E. John Adams Hyman, politician, state senator, and congressman, was born a slave near Warrenton, Warren County. Sold and sent to Alabama, he returned to Warren County in 1865 a free man. With the rise [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Immanuel College
by Calhoon, Robert M. Immanuel College in Greensboro was a residential high school, junior college, and theological seminary for African Americans operated by the Missouri Synod of the Lutheran Church from 1903 to 1961. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Impending Crisis of the South, The
by Faulkner, Ronnie W. The Impending Crisis of the South by Ronnie W. Faulkner, 2006 The Impending Crisis of the South, by Rowan County born abolitionist Hinton Rowan Helper (1829-1909), was published by A. B. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Inborden, Thomas Sewell
by Rives, Ralph Hardee. Thomas Sewell Inborden, black educator, was born near Upperville, about sixteen miles from Winchester, Va., the son of freeborn parents. His maternal grandmother was descended from a distinguished [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Insurance
by Diem, Gordon Neal. Insurance by Gordon Neal Diem, 2006 See also: Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina; Durham Life Insurance Company; Jefferson-Pilot Corporation; North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Inventors, North Carolina
by Davis, Lenwood. Many people are unaware of the numerous inventions and scientific breakthroughs that have happened in North Carolina. They probably have heard of Wilbur and Orville Wright and the first sustained, [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
J. Cole
by Eckard, Max. Jermain Lamar Cole, better known by his stage name, J. Cole, is a Grammy-nominated rapper, singer and producer from Fayetteville, NC. In 2009, he became the first artist to be signed to Jay-Z's Roc [...] (from NCpedia.)
Jacobs, Harriet
by Yellin, Jean Fagan. Harriet Jacobs, writer and reformer, was born a slave in Edenton. Her grandmother, "Yellow" Molly Horniblow, who was freed in 1828, subsequently bought a house in Edenton and earned her living as a [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
James City
by Zipf, Karin Lorene. James City in Craven County evolved during the Civil War and Reconstruction years and represents attempts by African Americans to establish an independent community in North Carolina. In 1862 Union [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Jeanes Fund
by Williams, Wiley J. The Jeanes Fund, the popular name for the Negro Rural School Fund of the Anna T. Jeanes Foundation, was endowed by a Philadelphia Quaker benefactor in 1907 with $1 million. The original board of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Joel, Lawrence
by Jones, H. G. Lawrence Joel, the first black man to receive the Medal of Honor for battlefield heroism, was born in the slums of Winston-Salem to Trenton and Mary Ellen Joel, but at age eight he was unofficially [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Johnson C. Smith University
by Martin, James I., Sr. Johnson C. Smith University, a historically African American institution associated with the Presbyterian Church, was established in Charlotte in 1867 as a "freedman's school" under the auspices of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Johnson, Edward Austin
by Gatewood, Willard B., Jr. Johnson, Edward Austin Willard B. Gatewood, Jr., 1988 Related Entries: Civil Rights; African Americans; Slavery 23 Nov. 1860–24 July [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Johnson, Janie Settles
by Parrish, Thomas, IV. Janie Settles was the the first African-American female rescue chief in North Carolina. She was born and grew up in Littleton in Halifax County, the youngest of the fourteen children of John Wesley [...] (from NCpedia.)
Jones, James H.
by Beck, Raymond L. James H. Jones, coachman and confidential courier for Confederate President Jefferson Davis and later a highly respected black public official in Wake County, was the free-born son of James H. and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Jones, John
by Powell, William S. John Jones, businessman and leader for blacks' rights, was born in Greene County, the son of a German named Bromfield and a free mulatto mother. Afraid that his father would take away her son, John's [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Jones, Thomas H.
by Leder, Eric. Jones, Thomas H. By Eric Leder, North Carolina State University, 2013 1806-? Thomas H. Jones was a self-educated abolitionist, minister, and author who spent much of his early life in [...] (from NCpedia.)
Jordan, Michael
by Case, Steven. Michael Jordan may have been born in Brooklyn, but North Carolina claims him as one of our own. The Jordan family moved to North Carolina when Michael Jordan was very small and he grew up in [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Kittrell College
by Wadelington, Charles W. Kittrell College by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: Historically Black Colleges and Universities; Era of Progress and Promise: Book overview Kittrell College was established in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Land Grant Colleges
by Towles, Louis P. Land Grant Colleges by Louis P. Towles, 2006 See also: North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; North Carolina State University; Land Grants Land Grant Colleges were [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lane, Lunsford
by Cotten, Alice R. Lunsford Lane, slave, businessman, free black, and lecturer, was the only child of Edward and Clarissa Lane, slaves from Raleigh. His parents had assumed the surname of Lane from the white family [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lee, Howard
by Graham, Nicholas. Howard Lee by Nicholas Graham UNC - North Carolina Collection, 2004. Updated by Michelle Czaikowski, 2010. "This Month in North Carolina History" series. Reprinted with [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Leonard Medical School
by Murray, Elizabeth Reid. The Leonard Medical School, established in Raleigh by Shaw University in 1880, trained more than 400 African American physicians during the nearly 40 years of its existence. Soon after Henry Martin [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Leonard, Sugar Ray
by Case, Steven. Sugar Ray Leonard by Steven Case and Kelly Agan, 2010 and 2014 NC Government & Heritage Library. May 17, 1956 - Ray Charles Leonard, known as the boxing champion "Sugar Ray" Leonard [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Livingstone College
by Wadelington, Charles W. Livingstone College in Salisbury was founded by the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church in 1879. Its two previous names were Zion Wesley Institute and Zion Wesley College. The institute was named [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Long Lance, Buffalo Child
by Smith, Donald B. Long Lance, Buffalo Child by Donald B. Smith, 1991 1 Dec. 1890–20 Mar. 1932 Buffalo Child Long Lance, author and actor, was one of the best-known North American Indians of the late 1920s. In [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lynching
by Baker, Bruce E. Lynching, the unlawful killing of a person by a mob and one of the most extreme forms of community sanction, has occurred in North Carolina on numerous occasions throughout its history. The term [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Mabley, Jackie (Moms)
by Gillespie, James D. Mabley, Jackie (Moms) by James D. Gillespie 1898–23 May 1975 (1898–23 May 1975), comedienne and actress, was born Loretta Mary Aiken in Brevard, the daughter of "Uncle" Jim and Mary Aiken. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Malcolm X Liberation University
by Toosi, Nahal. Malcolm X Liberation University (MXLU), an experimental institution of higher education focusing on African American history and life, opened in Durham in October 1969. Named for slain black leader [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Manly, Alex
by Miller, Daniel R. Alex Manly, black newspaper editor and Republican party leader in Wilmington, published the Wilmington Daily Record, which described itself as "the only negro daily in the world." The Record covered [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Manly, Alex
by Hill, Michael, Umfleet, LeRae. Alex Manly was born near Raleigh in 1866. Family tradition maintains that his father was Charles Manly, who served as governor of North Carolina from 1849 to 1851. There is some confusion about [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
Manumission Societies
by Norris, David A., Kirkman, Roger N. Manumission societies began as an eighteenth-century movement to abolish slavery through voluntary emancipation. The undertaking was initiated primarily by the Society of Friends (Quakers) on grounds [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Maroons
by Smith, William S. Maroons by William S. Smith, 2006 See also: African Americans; Great Dismal Swamp; Slave Rebellions; [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
McGirt, James Ephraim
by Andrews, William L. James Ephraim McGirt, black poet, editor, and publisher, was born in Robeson County near the town of Lumberton. The son of Madison and Ellen Townsend McGirt, he grew up on the family farm and was [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
McKoy, Millie-Christine
by Umfleet, LeRae. Millie-Christine McKoy by LeRae Umfleet Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History http://www.ncmarkers.com See also: Millie-Christine McCoy, Dictionary of North Carolina [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Mebane, George Allen
by Kenzer, Robert C. George Allen Mebane, black educator, legislator, editor, businessman, and writer, was born at the Hermitage in Bertie County of slave parents. His father was Allen Mebane. Nothing is known of his [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Melbourn, Julius
by Murray, Elizabeth Davis Reid. Julius Melbourn, said to have been born on 4 July 1790 in Wake County, was apparently a fictitious character invented to perpetrate a literary hoax. In 1847 the firm of Hall and Dickson in Syracuse, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Menhaden Chanteymen
by Foote, Margaret, Kress, Kelly. The Menhaden Chanteymen are a group of retired African American fishermen who previously worked off the coast near Beaufort. The group, during their working years, used singing to synchronize the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Merrick, John
by Weare, Walter B. John Merrick, black businessman, community leader, and founder of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, was born in Sampson County, the son of a slave mother; his father is unknown. At [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Military Women (from Tar Heel Junior Historian)
by Trojanowski, Hermann J. During World War II, over 350,000 women from across the United States served in the military. More than 7,000 of these women came from North Carolina. As far back as the Revolutionary War, women had [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Moore, Aaron McDuffie
by Weare, Walter B. Aaron McDuffie Moore, black physician, businessman, and humanitarian, was born in Columbus County. His parents belonged to the third generation of Negro-Indian-Caucasian families who had owned land [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Moore, Peter Weddick
by Ingram, Charles. Peter Weddick Moore, educator, was born near Faison in Duplin County, the son of Weddick and Alecy Thompson Moore, both slaves. His father allegedly was killed by the Ku Klux Klan during [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Moore, William John
by Powell, William S. Moore, William John by William S. Powell, 1991 4 Apr. 1837–post-1901 See also:  African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina); African Methodist [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
by Gavins, Raymond, Vocci, Robert Blair. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People by Raymond Gavins, 2006 Additional research provided by Robert Blair Vocci. The National Association for the Advancement of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
National Negro Business League
by Kenzer, Robert C. The National Negro Business League was created by Booker T. Washington in 1900 to encourage black entrepreneurs in the United States. While one of the most visible aspects of the league was its [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
by Wadelington, Charles W. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (North Carolina A&T) in Greensboro was created as the Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Colored Race by the General Assembly [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Association of Educators
by Martin, James I., Sr. The North Carolina Association of Educators (NCAE) was formed in 1970 with the union of the white North Carolina Education Association and the black North Carolina Teachers Association. Its earliest [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Central University
by Wadelington, Charles W. North Carolina Central University in Durham was the first state-supported liberal arts college for African American students in North Carolina. It was chartered as a private institution in 1909 and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Colored Industrial Association Fair
by McKown, Harry. On November 18, 1879, the North Carolina Colored Industrial Association Fair opened in Raleigh at the site of what had been a military hospital. Thousands of African Americans flocked to the state [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
North Carolina Industrial Association
by Murray, Elizabeth Reid. The North Carolina Industrial Association (NCIA), an organization of African American civic leaders formed in 1879, was known primarily for its presentation of the annual North Carolina Industrial [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Society in 1953 and in 2003
by Freeze, Gary. North Carolina has always been a place where the old and the new live side by side. The time period from 1953 to 2003 is no different. Although patterns from the past, such as eating barbecue or [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
North Carolina Teachers Association
by Justesen, Benjamin R. North Carolina Teachers Association by Benjamin R. Justesen, 2006 See also: North Carolina Association of Educators;  Shepard, James Edward (UNC Press, DNCB); Parent-Teacher [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
O'Hara, James Edward
by Elmore, Joseph E. James Edward O'Hara, congressman, Halifax county commissioner, black politician, educator, and lawyer, was born in New York City, the son of an Irish seaman and a West Indian woman. At age six, he [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
O'Kelly, Berry
by Murray, Elizabeth Davis Reid. O'Kelly, Berry by Elizabeth Davis Reid Murray, 1991 ca. 1861–14 Mar. 1931 Berry O'Kelly, merchant, realtor, banker, and philanthropist, was called at his death "the most prominent leader of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Overseers
by Davis, Charles C. Overseers is a term referring to employees of plantation owners before 1865 who served as general managers of routine farming operations. They sometimes were former indentured servants themselves, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Oxley, Lawrence Augustus
by Bell, John L., Jr. Lawrence Augustus Oxley, social worker and civil servant, was born in Boston, Mass., the son of William Junius Brutus and Alice Agatha Martin Oxley. His parents sent him to Prospect Union Preparatory [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Palmer Memorial Institute
by Wadelington, Charles W. Palmer Memorial Institute by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum. The Palmer Memorial Institute, located between [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pearsall Plan
by Thuesen, Sarah C. On 17 May 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court declared in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. In the years that followed, the southern states [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Perry, Samuel L.
by Uzzell, Odell. Perry, Samuel L. by Odell Uzzell, 1994 Related Entries: African American; Civil Rights; Transportation; Exodusters b. 1849 Samuel L. Perry, teacher and civil rights activist, resided in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Phonte
by Eckard, Max. Phonte by Max Eckard, 2012. Years active: 1998-present "I do this all for hip-hop!/ I'm lying...I do this...for my...mortgage...for my bills." -"Dance in the Reign," Charity Starts [...] (from NCpedia.)
Pollard, John Henry Mingo
by London, Lawrence F. John Henry Mingo Pollard, Episcopal clergyman, was born in Lunenburg County, Va. He read for orders in Petersburg, Va., under the direction of the Reverend Giles B. Cooke, John D. Keiley, and the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Price, Joseph Charles
by Inscoe, John C. Price, Joseph Charles by John Inscoe, 1994 Related Entries: Civil Rights; Civil War; African American; Historically Black Colleges and Universities 10 Feb. 1854–25 Oct. 1893 Joseph Charles [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Princeville
by Hill, Michael. Princeville, an Edgecombe County town incorporated in 1885, originated in 1865 as a resettlement community for ex-slaves. At the close of the Civil War, when Union troops occupied the area around [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Public Education- Part 5: Desegregation and Equality in Public Education
by Mazzocchi, Jay, Johnson, K. Todd, Matthews, Scott, Justesen, Benjamin R., Colomb, Nayda Swonger, Latta, E. Michael. Public Education by Benjamin R. Justesen and Scott Matthews, 2006 Additional research provided by Nayda Swonger Colomb, K. Todd Johnson, E. Michael Latta, and Jay Mazzocchi. See also: [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pupil Assignment Act
by Campbell, Karl E. The Pupil Assignment Act was North Carolina's first and most effective legislative response to the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. On 17 May 1954 the Court declared that [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Radio Free Dixie
by Williams, Wiley J. Radio Free Dixie was an African American, English-language radio program broadcast from Radio Havana from 1962 to 1965 that called upon "oppressed Negroes to rise and free themselves." Narrated by [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Revels, Hiram Rhoades
by Case, Steven. Hiram Revels was born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, in approximately 1827 (the 1850 Census lists “about 1825”), but an exact birthplace has not been identified. He was born to free parents of [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Richardson, Willis
by McIntyre, Pattie B. Willis Richardson, playwright, was born in Wilmington, the son of Willis Wilder and Agnes Ann Harper Richardson. After the riot of 1898, he moved with his parents from Wilmington to Washington, D.C. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Roach, Max
by Franke, Matthew. Maxwell Lemuel Roach was easily one of the most influential jazz drummers of the twentieth century. He was an innovative bandleader who participated in ensembles which pioneered both bebop and cool [...] (from NCpedia.)
Robbins, Parker David
by Powell, William S. Parker David Robbins, soldier, legislator, and inventor, was born in Bertie County, the son of John A. Robbins; his mother's name is unknown. A mulatto with Chowan Indian ancestors, Robbins was [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Royal Knights of King David
by Powell, William S. Royal Knights of King David by William S. Powell, 2006 See also: North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. The Royal Knights of King David was an organization formed in 1883 by John [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Rush, Christopher
by Carroll, Grady L. E., Sr. Christopher Rush, second superintendent (a title later changed to bishop) of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church and a full-blooded African, was born a slave in Craven County. Whether he was [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Said, Omar
by Parramore, Thomas C. Omar Ibn Said, a slave and Arabic scholar, was born in Futa Toro (now a part of the Republic of Senegal) of an aristocratic Moslem family. Educated in Koranic schools, he was a teacher and tradesman [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Sanders, Daniel Jackson
by Massey, R. A., Jr. Daniel Jackson Sanders, Presbyterian clergyman, editor, and educator, one of five children of William and Laura Sanders, was born a slave near Winnsboro, S.C. His mother was owned by the Reverend [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
School Desegregation
by Currie, Jefferson. School Desegregation "With Deliberate Speed: North Carolina and School Desegregation" by Jefferson Currie II Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2004. Tar Heel [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Schools for Freed Peoples, 1860s
by Sandifer, Alex, Renfer, Berry Dishong. Schools for freed peoples By Alex Sandifer and Berry Dishong Renfer Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Fall 2003. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Scruggs, Lawson Andrew
by Murray, Elizabeth Reid. Scruggs, Lawson Andrew by Elizabeth Reid Murray, 1994 Related Entries: African American; Civil Rights; Historically Black Colleges 15 Jan. 1857–1914 Lawson Andrew Scruggs, physician, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Seabrook, James Ward
by Burns, Augustus M., III. Seabrook, James Ward by A. M. Burns III, 1994 Related Entries: Historically Black Colleges; Civil Rights 6 Nov. 1886–26 Mar. 1974 James Ward Seabrook, educator, college president, leader in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Segregation
by Hatley Wadelington, Flora. Segregation in the 1920s "Assigned Places" by Flora Hatley Wadelington Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 2004. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Settlement of the Coastal Plain
by Watson, Alan D. Settlement of the Coastal Plain, 1650-1775 by Alan D. Watson Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 1995. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Shaw University
by Wadelington, Charles W. Shaw University by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: Private Education; Private Higher Education Shaw University, founded in Raleigh in 1865, was the first African American institution [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Shaw, Herbert Bell
by Carroll, Grady L. E., Sr. Herbert Bell Shaw, bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, was born in Wilmington, the son of John Henry and Lummie Virginia Hodges Shaw. He was named for the Reverend Herbert Bell, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Shepard, James Edward
by Eagles, Charles W. James Edward Shepard, college president, was the oldest of twelve children born in Raleigh to the Reverend Augustus and Hattie Whitted Shepard. He attended the public schools of Raleigh before [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Sheridan, Louis
by Powell, William S. Louis Sheridan, farmer, free black merchant, and Liberian official, was probably the Louis Sheridan mentioned in the 1800 will of Joseph R. Gautier (d. 15 May 1807), Elizabethtown merchant, as the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Simkins v. Cone
by Thomas, Karen Kruse. In 1962 dentist George Simkins, physician Alvin Blount, and other African American physicians and their patients sued Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital and Wesley Long Community Hospital in Greensboro, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Simone, Nina
by Franke, Matthew. The artist who would come to be known across the world as Nina Simone was born Eunice Kathleen Waymon on February 21, 1933, in Tryon, North Carolina in Polk County. She was the sixth of eight [...] (from NCpedia.)
Slater Fund
by Williams, Wiley J. In 1882 John Fox Slater, a textile manufacturer and philanthropist from Norwich, Conn., established a $1 million fund exclusively for the education of blacks in southern states. The goal of the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slave Clandestine Economy
by Schweninger, Loren. Slave Clandestine Economy by Loren Schweninger, 2006 Slave clandestine economy refers to a variety of private agricultural and business endeavors undertaken by some North Carolina slaves. In [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slave Codes
by Lamm, Alan K. The increasing number of black slaves in colonial America created suspicion and fear among the general population and led to a backlash of white reaction known as slave codes. Virginia was the first [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slave Names
by Inscoe, John C. Slave Names by John C. Inscoe, 2006 Some scholars of slavery have come to view the names and naming of slaves as a meaningful gauge of many aspects of slave life and culture and of how their [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slave Patrols
by Salemson, Daniel J. North Carolina, unlike other southern states and perhaps due to the lack of major slave rebellions, was slow to establish formal slave patrols. South Carolina first addressed the issue in 1704, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slave Rebellions
by Parramore, Thomas C., Nash, Steven E. Slave Rebellions by Steven E. Nash and Thomas C. Parramore, 2006 See also: Negro Head Road; Violence, Group Slave rebellions were a recurring fear in North Carolina throughout much of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slavery
by Crow, Jeffrey J., Dees-Killette, Amelia, Huff, Diane. Slavery by Jeffrey J. Crow, 2006 Additional research provided by Amelia Dees-Killette and Diane Huff. See also: Ad Valorem Taxation of Slaves; Colonization Societies; Manumission [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slaves' Midsummer Holiday
by Powell, William S. The Slaves' Midsummer Holiday, when slave laborers were permitted a few days off, occurred after crops were laid by and before harvesting began. On 28 Aug. 1862 Catherine Ann Devereux Edmondston of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Smith, Ezekiel Ezra
by Reidinger, Martin. Smith, Ezekiel Ezra by Martin Reidinger, 1994 23 May 1852–6 Dec. 1933 Ezekiel Ezra Smith, educator and diplomat, the son of free blacks Alexander and Caroline Smith, was born in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Smith, Isaac Hughes
by Massengill, Stephen E. Isaac Hughes Smith, black legislator, realtor, and philanthropist, was born in the Craven County area, the son of Thomas and Harriet Smith, both natives of North Carolina. Little is known about his [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Smith, Owen Lun West
by Johnston, Hugh Buckner, Eagles, Brenda Marks. Owen Lun West Smith, U.S. minister to Liberia and Methodist leader, was born in Giddensville, Sampson County, the son of Ollen and Maria Hicks Smith, both of African descent. As a youth he served as [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Soul City
by Gavins, Raymond. Soul City by Raymond Gavins, 2006 Soul City, a small town located one mile off U.S. 1 between Warrenton and Manson in Warren County, is a symbol of black economic aspiration fueled by the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
by Gavins, Raymond. Southern Christian Leadership Conference by Raymond Gavins, 2006 The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), established in 1957 in Atlanta and headed by Martin Luther King Jr. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Spaulding, Asa Timothy
by Powell, William S. Asa Timothy Spaulding, insurance company executive, was born in Columbus County, the son of Armstead and Annie Belle Lowery Spaulding. He attended the National Training School of Howard University, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Spaulding, Charles Clinton
by Weare, Walter B. Charles Clinton Spaulding, black businessman and community leader, was born in Columbus County to parents descended from a long-standing community of free Negro landholders in the area. A family oral [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Spaulding, Charles Clinton
by Stocker, Emmanuel. Spaulding, Charles Clinton By Emmanuel Stocker, North Carolina State University, 2013 August 1, 1874- August 1, [...] (from NCpedia.)
State v. John Mann
by Brinkley, Martin H. State v. John Mann by Martin H. Brinkley, 2006 State v. John Mann, an 1829 North Carolina Supreme Court decision, is probably the most notorious judicial opinion on the relationship between [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
State v. Manuel
by Stoesen, Alexander R. State v. Manuel by Alexander R. Stoesen, 2006 State v. Manuel, argued before the North Carolina Supreme Court in 1838, was the first case to decide that a free black person was a citizen of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
State v. Negro Will
by Brinkley, Martin H. State v. Negro Will by Martin H. Brinkley, 2006 See also: State v. John Mann. State v. Negro Will, a celebrated 1834 North Carolina Supreme Court decision standing for the general [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Step Dancing
by Moore, Cecelia. Step Dancing by Cecelia Moore, 2006 Step dancing, or "soulstepping," is a form of competitive dance exhibition developed by African American fraternities and sororities in North Carolina and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Strayhorn, William (Billy) Thomas
by Sanford, Mary Pettis. William Thomas Strayhorn, African American jazz musician, came from families (Strayhorns, Youngs, and Craigs) established in Hillsborough for generations; there seems to be some evidence of West [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
by Hill, Michael. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was one of the most influential organizations to participate in the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Although SNCC is best known for its role [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
by Brabham, Robin. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education by Robin Brabham, 2006 See also: Pupil Assignment Act. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, argued before the U.S. Supreme [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Taylor, Robert Robinson
by Powell, William S. Robert Robinson Taylor, architect, was born in Wilmington, the son of Henry, a wealthy mulatto house carpenter, and Emilie Taylor, also mulatto. His father later was described as an able black [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Terrell, Saunders
by Bastin, Bruce. Terrell, Saunders (Sonny Terry) by Bruce Bastin, 1994 Related Entries: African American; Music; Allen Fulton; Gary Davis 24 Oct. 1911–11 Mar. 1986 Saunders (Sonny Terry) Terrell, blind [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Thorpe, Earlie Endris
by Powell, William S. Thorpe, Earlie Endris by William S. Powell, 1994 Related Entries: Historically Black Universities and Colleges; Civil Rights; African American 9 Nov. 1924–30 Jan. 1989 Earlie Endris [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Turner, Benjamin Sterling
by Stewart, Alva W. Benjamin Sterling Turner, Alabama congressman during Reconstruction, was born near Weldon, Halifax County, of unknown parents. A slave, he moved to Selma, Ala., with his master in 1830. Although he [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Two Black Classes of Antebellum NC
by Nathans, Sydney. The Two Black Classes of Antebellum North Carolina by Sydney Nathans Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 1996. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Two World Wars
by Belton, Tom. Today North Carolina is a major center for aviation-related military bases. These include the Coast Guard station at Elizabeth City; the Marine Corps Air Station at Cherry Point, which provides [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Vann, Robert Lee
by Eagles, Charles W. Robert Lee Vann, newspaper editor, was born in Ahoskie to Lucy Peoples, who named him for his great-grandfather, Robert Lee, and for her first employer, Albert Vann. His father is unknown. At age six [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Violence, Group
by Mazzocchi, Jay, O'Brien, Gail Williams. Violence, Group by Gail Williams O'Brien and Jay Mazzocchi, 2006 See also:"Death to the Klan" March; Gastonia Strike; Ku Klux Klan; Lowry Band; Lynching; Red Shirts; Regulator Movement; [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Walden, Islay
by Jackson, Blyden. Islay Walden, black poet and Congregational minister, was born in Randolph County, the son of a slave named Ruth belonging to James Gardner. At Gardner's death in 1843 Ruth and her two children were [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Walker, David
by Inscoe, John C. David Walker, black author of an incendiary antislavery pamphlet, was born in Wilmington to a free mother and a slave father who died before his birth. Despite his free status inherited from his [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Walls, William Jacob
by Carroll, Grady L. E., Sr. Walls, William Jacob by Grady L. E. Carroll, 1994 Related Entries: African American 8 May 1885–23 Apr. 1975 William Jacob Walls, Methodist clergyman, editor, and author, was born at [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wheeler Airlines (from Tar Heel Junior Historian)
by Wadelington, Charles W. In North Carolina, aviation experienced important developments in the late 1920s. In 1928 the state’s first airmail flight landed at Lindley Field in Greensboro. By 1929 Raleigh introduced commercial [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Wheeler, John Hervey
by Weare, Walter B. John Harvey Wheeler, black businessman and civil rights leader, was born in Kittrell on the campus of Kittrell College, an African Methodist Episcopal church school of which his father was president. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
White, George Henry
by Schenck, William Z. White, George Henry by William Z. Schenck, 1994 Related Entries: Legislative Branch; African Americans 18 Dec. 1852–28 Dec. 1918 George Henry White, lawyer, legislator, congressman, and racial [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wiggins, Ella May
by Frederickson, Mary E. Ella May Wiggins, textile worker, balladier, and union organizer, was born in the mountains of Cherokee County, near Bryson City, the daughter of James and Elizabeth Maples May. Her father, a [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Williams, John Taylor
by Powell, William S. John Taylor Williams, educator, physician, and businessman, was born in the northern part of Cumberland County, the son of free black parents, Peter Williams, a successful lumberman, and Flora Ann [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wilmington Race Riot
by Faulkner, Ronnie W. The Wilmington Race Riot of 10 Nov. 1898 constituted the most serious incident of racial violence in the history of North Carolina. It has been variously called a revolution, a race war, and more [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wilmington Race Riot
by Umfleet, LeRae. The Wilmington Race riot - 1898 by LeRae Umfleet NC Office of Archives and History, 2010. See also: Wilmington Race Riot (Encyclopedia of North Carolina); Silver [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
Wilmington Ten
by Stinson, Craig M. On 6 Feb. 1971, after weeks of racial tension over integration of the public school system in Wilmington, a white-owned grocery store in a black neighborhood was firebombed. A year later Ben Chavis, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wilmington Ten (from UNC-CH)
by Graham, Nicholas. In early February, 1971, downtown Wilmington, N.C. was a war zone. Shots rang through the streets, traffic was blocked, and citizens were barricaded in a church. Although it took only a couple of [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Wimberly, Dred
by Macfie, John. Dred Wimberly, member of the General Assembly, was born at Walnut Plantation near Tarboro, where he was raised and worked in the fields of James S. Battle prior to the Civil War. In 1865 Kemp Plummer [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Winston-Salem Bible College
by Losse, Helen. Winston-Salem Bible College, formerly the Christian Institute, began in 1945 in a storefront building on Wheeler Street in Winston-Salem. After a shaky beginning during which the college was forced [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Winston-Salem State University
by Wadelington, Charles W. Winston-Salem State University was founded in Winston-Salem as the Slater Industrial Academy, a school for African Americans, on 28 Sept. 1892. Housed in a one-room frame structure, the school had 25 [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Women of Somerset Place
by Sykes, John. Women of Somerset Place by John Sykes Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Spring 1994. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of History Somerset Place, [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Woodward, Sara Griffith Stanley
by Powell, William S. Woodward, Sara Griffith Stanley by William S. Powell, 1994 Related Entries: African American 1836–1918 Sara Griffith Stanley Woodward, anti-slavery activist and teacher and one of the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Work, Monroe Nathan
by Johnson, E. D. Monroe Nathan Work, bibliographer and historian, was born in Iredell County, the son of Alexander and Eliza Hobbs Work, both slaves until the end of the Civil War. He was the youngest of eleven [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wright, Marion Allen
by Copeland, J. Isaac. Wright, Marion Allen by J. Isaac Copeland, 1996 18 Jan. 1894–14 Feb. 1983 Marion Allen Wright, attorney, citizen of the two Carolinas, and firm supporter of civil rights, was born in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Yergan, Max
by Boykin, James H. Max Yergan, world religious leader, educator, reformer, and consultant on African affairs, was born in Raleigh, the son of Lizzie Yergan and the grandson of Fred Yergan, a slave and apprentice [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Young Men's Institute
by Gavins, Raymond. Young Men's Institute by Raymond Gavins, 2006 The Young Men's Institute in Asheville, backed by businessman and philanthropist George W. Vanderbilt, opened in 1893 as a community center for [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Young, Allen Lawrence
by Murray, Elizabeth Reid. Allen Lawrence Young, community leader, educator, and founder of the Wake Forest Normal and Industrial School for Negroes (1905–57), was born in northern Wake County, the eldest of ten children of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Young, James Hunter
by Gatewood, Willard B., Jr. James Hunter Young, politician, editor, businessman, and racial spokesman, was born near Henderson. His mother was a slave belonging to Captain D. E. Young, and his father was "a prominent white man [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
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