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John Fulenwider, Lincoln County Ironmaker

This Day in North Carolina History - 17 hours 18 min ago

A sketch of an early ironworks in Rockingham County. Image from
the North Carolina Collection at UNC-Chapel Hill.

On September 4, 1826, early industrialist John Fulenwider died.

Born in Switzerland in 1756, Fulenwider moved to North Carolina with his family and settled in Rowan County. After fighting on the Patriot side at the Battle of Ramsour’s Mill, he took up iron manufacturing, along with many others who received land grants of 3,000 acres and tax deferrals under the state’s 1788 “Act to Encourage the Building of Iron Works.”

Fulenwider landed in Lincoln County, finding that it provided all of the essential ingredients for success: iron ore, trees for charcoal, limestone and falling water. He established two forges around 1795, with the one at High Shoals becoming his most important foundry.

His works produced nails, farm and kitchen implements, bar iron and wagon wheels, and he developed one of the earliest methods for making pig iron. During the War of 1812, the High Shoals ironworks produced cannon balls for use by the American army. The works operated for more than 70 years, until 1875.

At his death in 1826, Fulenwider left more than 20,000 acres of land and accumulated wealth to his heirs. He is remembered as part of an important cadre of entrepreneurs who spurred the development of iron manufacturing.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.


North Carolina’s Original Tourism Slogan, 1585

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/03/2015 - 06:30

Part of Ralph Lane’s letter containing the “Goodliest Soile under the Cope of Heaven.” Image from The Third and Last Volume of the Voyages, Navigations, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation via Durham University.

On September 3, 1585, Ralph Lane described the Virginia Colony, which included present day North Carolina, as, “the goodliest soile under the cope of Heaven.”

Lane, leader of the second group of English voyagers that was sent to explore the colony, used the phrase in a letter to Richard Hakluyt the elder, an Englishman who promoted New World exploration.

Describing the Virginia Colony as a land of unexplored greatness with many native people living in rudimentary villages, Lane found the climate wholesome and pleasant, and stated that no one among his crew fell ill while visiting. He further claimed that the New World had no equal in the known world at the time.

There is debate among historians over whether or not Lane was giving an accurate description of Virginia or if he was simply trying to increase the likelihood that a permanent English settlement would be established in the colony.

Regardless of questions surrounding the intent of the description, the “goodliest soile under the cope of heaven” phrase has become revered by North Carolinians and seen as an apt accounting of the natural beauty of the state.

Read an excerpt of the letter in a volume of documents about the early English settlement of North Carolina published by our agency in 1948.

Visit: Roanoke Island Festival Park, open seven days a week in Manteo, celebrates England’s first attempt at colonization in the New World.

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For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.


Masterful American Artist, Romare Bearden of Charlotte

This Day in North Carolina History - Wed, 09/02/2015 - 06:30

Bearden’s New Orleans: Ragging Home (1974). Image from then N.C. Museum of Art.

On September 2, 1911, Romare Bearden, one of the 20th century’s most important African-American artists, was born in Charlotte

Bearden studied at the Art Students League in New York City, Columbia University and the Sorbonne. For 30 years, he worked on his art at night and on weekends while employed as a social worker in New York City.

Image from the Romare Bearden Foundation.

Bearden’s first solo exhibition was in Harlem in 1940. His collages, watercolors, oils, photomontages and prints depict black culture in a style derived from Cubism. Bearden also was a songwriter and book illustrator, and designed sets for the Alvin Ailey American Dance Company.

An advocate for young emerging artists, Bearden had close associations with distinguished artists, intellectuals and musicians including James Baldwin, Stuart Davis, Duke Ellington, Langston Hughes, Ralph Ellison, Joan Miró, George Grosz, Alvin Ailey and Jacob Lawrence.

Although his family moved north when he was only four years old, he said of his home state,

Most artists take some place, and like a flower, they sink roots, looking for universal implications. . . . My roots are in North Carolina.

Indeed, many of his paintings and collages were drawn from memories of his time in North Carolina.

Throughout his career he received a host of honors, including the Mayor’s Award of Honor for Art and Culture in New York City in 1984 and the National Medal of Arts in 1987.

Bearden died in New York City in 1988.

Visit: The N.C. Museum of Art in Raleigh, Mint Museum in Charlotte and N.C. Central University Art Museum in Durham all have works by Bearden in their collections.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day subscribe by email using the box on the right and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.


Freedom Fighter Abraham Galloway of Southport and Wilmington

This Day in North Carolina History - Tue, 09/01/2015 - 06:30

Image from the State Archives.

On September 1, 1870, African-American activist Abraham Galloway died in Wilmington.

Born in 1837 in what is now the town of Southport, Galloway was the son of a white ship’s pilot and a slave. He escaped to the North by ship in 1857 and became active in militant abolitionist circles.

During the Civil War, Galloway led black recruitment efforts in the federally occupied northeastern portion of the state to fill the ranks of what would become Gen. Edward Wild’s African Brigade. For the volunteers, he secured pay equal to that of the Massachusetts regiments, educational opportunities for soldiers’ children and support for their families, most of whom were destitute.

As the war waned, Galloway began shifting his focus to the political struggle for equal treatment and organized the Equal Rights League, which lobbied for rights for freed slaves, including education, protection from violence and the right to vote.

Galloway and the league organized the state’s first freedmen’s convention, held in Raleigh in September 1865, to represent the interests of the state’s black population as the constitutional convention convened across town.

The apex of Galloway’s political career came in 1868 when he was among the first black men to be elected to the state senate. He would serve there until his death.

Other related resources:

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.


Samuel A. Ashe, Confederate Soldier and Historian

This Day in North Carolina History - Mon, 08/31/2015 - 06:30

Image from the N.C. Museum of History.

On August 31, 1938, historian Samuel A. Ashe died.

A descendant of Governor Samuel Ashe of Pender County, Ashe was born near Wilmington in 1840 and studied at the U.S. Naval Academy. At the outbreak of the Civil War he went to work for the Confederacy as a soldier and engineer. His final assignment of the war was at the Fayetteville arsenal in 1865.

After the war, Wilmingtonians elected Ashe to one term in state House of Representatives. Having moved his law practice to Raleigh while serving in the legislature, Ashe remained in the capital, reviving what became the News and Observer in 1881.

As he aged, his interests moved toward history and he compiled the still-vital Biographical History of North Carolina. He also wrote the two-volume History of North Carolina among numerous other historical works.

On what would have been his 100th birthday, and only three years after his death, Ashe received the rare tribute of a monument on the grounds of the State Capitol with the dedication of a bronze tablet in his memory.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day subscribe by email using the box on the right and follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest.


A Reunion Without Precedent, at Somerset Place in 1986

This Day in North Carolina History - Sun, 08/30/2015 - 06:30

A reunion at the 1986 “Somerset Homecoming.” Image from Somerset Place.

On August 30, 1986, “Somerset Homecoming” took place at Somerset Place State Historic Site in Creswell. The homecoming was the first-ever event of its kind: a reunion of descendants of the enslaved community of a large southern plantation.

Organized by Dorothy Spruill Redford–a descendant of the enslaved community and in time the site manager of Somerset Place–the happening brought together hundreds of family members from around the country and garnered international attention.

Gov. Jim Martin greets visitors on the steps of
the Collins House during the 1986 “Somerset Homecoming.” Image from Somerset Place.

Somerset Place was home to more than 850 slaves when it was active from 1785 until 1865. As a historic site it was interpreted for years mainly in terms of the wealth of the Collins family, which owned the plantation, and the fact that the operation was among the largest and most economically successful in the state. Redford shifted the site’s focus and began telling the stories of all the families who lived there.

Recognizing the enslaved people’s contributions to the success of the plantation, Redford was quoted by the New York Times during the homecoming, saying, ”From this day forward, there will always be a shared recognition. They’ll think of the Josiah Collins family, but they’ll think of my family too.”

She described the state historic site as ”a living monument to ordinary folks – to our toil, our lives, our lineage.”

Visit: Somerset Place, located near Creswell in Washington County, is open to visitors Tuesdays to Saturday.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day subscribe by email using the box on the right and follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest.


Betty Debnam and the “Mini Page”

This Day in North Carolina History - Sat, 08/29/2015 - 06:30

The first issue of the Mini Page.
Image from UNC-Chapel Hill.

On August 29, 1969, the News and Observer published the first issue of the “Mini Page.”

From its first appearance in the Raleigh newspaper in 1969 to its final publication in 2007, the “Mini Page” engaged children through fun and educational activities. Through the paper, kids could be like adults, reading their own page in the newspaper and learning at the same time.

Created by UNC graduate, News and Observer editor and former elementary school teacher Betty Debnam, the “Mini Page” quickly took off. In 1970, the Charlotte News became the first paper outside of Raleigh to publish the section; and national syndication followed in 1977. At its peak, the “Mini Page” appeared weekly in more than 500 newspapers weekly.

Debnam was the section’s sole staff member for many years, writing and editing all the content and laying the feature out, though she did eventually have two staff members come on board. During her time with the publication, she wrote several “Mini Page” companion books and won numerous awards including the Newspaper Association of America’s first Lifetime Achievement Award.

Debnam sold the “Mini Page” in 2007, but every issue is now available online for free through UNC-Chapel Hill’s digital collections.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day subscribe by email using the box on the right and follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest.


Laurinburg-Maxton Army Air Base and Glider Warfare

This Day in North Carolina History - Fri, 08/28/2015 - 06:30

Laurinburg-Maxton postcard. Image from the Library of Congress.

On August 28, 1942, the U.S. Army activated Laurinburg-Maxton air base in Scotland County. The facility, where glider pilots trained, played a little known role in the Allied victory in World War II.

Germany had pioneered the use of gliders, demonstrating their effectiveness in Holland and on Crete.

The individual most responsible for incorporating gliders into the U.S. military was Maj. Gen. William C. Lee, who had initiated the use of airborne forces at Fort Bragg and Camp Mackall.

Paratroopers practice at Laruinburg-Maxton Army Air Base during World War II. Image from the
N.C. Museum of History.

The Laurinburg-Maxton Army Air Base housed the First Troop Carrier Command. The 4,600-acre base contained three 6,500-foot long runways that formed a triangle. The triangle’s center was 510 acres of Bermuda grass, the landing site for the gliders.

The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps considered the glider concept viable as well, and incorporated the craft into their own training exercises. From 1942 to 1945, thousands trained for combat in Scotland County, including troops that took part in the D-Day invasion at Normandy.

At the war’s conclusion the base was deactivated. With the advent of helicopters, the military had no further need for the glider program.

The Scotland Memorial Hospital was housed on the base’s former site from 1946 to 1951, and today the facility houses an industrial park and public airport.

Other related resources:

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.


Flight of Robert Williams as Racial Tensions Rise in Monroe, 1961

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 08/27/2015 - 06:30

A headline in the Statesville Record and Landmark announcing the violence in Monroe. Image from UNC-Chapel Hill.

On August 27, 1961, civil rights protests in Monroe escalated into a riot, leading to local NAACP leader Robert Williams being charged with kidnapping and fleeing across state lines.

In late August 1961, Freedom Riders and members of other civil rights organizations traveled to Monroe where they hoped to assist Williams. He aimed to press charges against a Ku Klux Klansman who had assaulted him the previous year. They planned to carry out peaceful demonstrations to protest the injustice.

The FBI’s “Wanted” poster for Williams. Image from the FBI.

Despite the group’s nonviolent discipline, confrontations escalated, and on August 27, as the crowd at the courthouse grew unruly, the police line collapsed and a white mob attacked some of the activists. The remaining picketers were loaded into cars and taken into custody. Gunfire was heard around Monroe for hours, and a policeman was wounded.

Shortly thereafter, a white couple made a wrong turn onto the street where Williams lived. Williams’s supporters forcibly removed the couple from their car and took them to Williams’s house where they were held by armed individuals before being released unharmed.

Before learning of the kidnapping charges against him, Williams escaped with his family to Cuba where, by 1963, he was broadcasting a radio program called Radio Free Dixie.

Other related resources:

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.


Spanish Attack on Beaufort, 1747

This Day in North Carolina History - Wed, 08/26/2015 - 06:30

A 9160 re-enactment of the Spanish invasion of Beaufort.
Image from Beaufort, North Carolina History.

On August 26, 1747, Spanish privateers attacked and plundered Beaufort. The attack was one in a multi-year series of assaults by the Spanish on the largely undefended coast of North Carolina. It dramatically demonstrated the constant threat posed by the Spanish on the colony.

After three days under siege, the colony’s inhabitants fought back and drove the privateers away. From records it is clear that some Spanish captives were taken in the skirmish. What was called “the alarm” was in effect until September when it became clear that the marauders would not be returning.

The next year, however, the Spanish attacked again, temporarily driving away the inhabitants of Brunswick. As part of an inter-colonial war with the Spanish and French that had roots in Britain’s battles with the two countries, the skirmishes ended in 1748 with a treaty that was but a brief respite before the French and Indian War began in 1754.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day subscribe by email using the box on the right and follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest.


Little Eva and Her 1962 Classic “Loco-Motion”

This Day in North Carolina History - Tue, 08/25/2015 - 06:30

On August 25, 1962, Little Eva hit the top of the charts with her recording of “The Loco-Motion.”

Eva Narcissus Boyd, fresh from her home in Belhaven, can be said to have been in the right place at the right time. In 1960, she left North Carolina and headed to New York to try to break into the music business.

While she sang backup in some studio sessions early on, it was not until “The Loco-Motion” that she got her big break. At the time of the song’s release, the 17-year-old Boyd was working as babysitter to songwriters Gerry Goffin and Carole King. The duo wrote “The Loco-Motion” and asked Boyd to sing on the demo with King doing the backup vocals. While they had intended the song for Dee Dee Sharp, who turned it down, producer Don Kirshner decided that the demo was fine as it was.

Little Eva had some modest success with other songs but none equaled the popularity of “The Loco-Motion.”

The song has the distinction of being one of the few to reach #1 in three different decades with three different artists. After Little Eva’s success with it in 1962, Grand Funk Railroad and Kylie Minogue had break out versions of the song in in 1974 and 1987, respectively.

Boyd died in Kinston in 2003.

Other related resources:

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, subscribe by email using the box on the right and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.


A Hex on Her Houses: Harriet Irwin of Charlotte

This Day in North Carolina History - Mon, 08/24/2015 - 06:30

An illustration from Irwin’s 1869 patent. Image from
the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

On August 24, 1869, Harriet Morrison Irwin became the first woman to patent an architectural design.

Irwin’s design was for a hexagonal house, planned in such a way that there were no hallways and no four-cornered rooms. Concerned with domestic efficiency, she theorized that her idea utilized space more effectively than a rectangular building and encouraged better airflow.

Irwin’s ideas received some attention from the press at the time and reportedly inspired at least two houses in Charlotte, though both were demolished.

Born in Mecklenburg County in 1828 to a prominent clergyman’s family, Irwin spent most of her life in and around Charlotte. Aside from her work in architecture, Irwin was an author and social commentator. She wrote primarily nonfiction articles related to history and progress but also penned one novel concerning her architectural theories in which the hero lives in a hexagonal house.

She and James Irwin had nine children, five of whom survived infancy. She died in 1897.

The original patent is available online from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day subscribe by email using the box on the right and follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest.


Duke’s Sonny Jurgensen, Key Player for the Washington NFL Team

This Day in North Carolina History - Sun, 08/23/2015 - 06:30

Jurgensen playing for the Washington Redskins in October 1967. Image from the National Football League.

On August 23, 1934, legendary quarterback Christian Jurgensen, was born in Wilmington. Known to the world as Sonny, the spirited and redheaded Jurgensen is considered one of the all-time best passers in pro football history.

Jurgensen was a multi-talented athlete in Wilmington during the 1940s and 1950s, playing baseball, basketball, football and tennis. He attended Duke and joined the varsity football squad in 1954 as a defensive back, becoming starting quarterback the next year and leading the team to the Orange Bowl.

He then played seven seasons for the Philadelphia Eagles after signing as a 4th round draft pick in 1957. In 1964, the Eagles traded him to the Washington Redksins, where he spent the rest of his career and helped to change the team’s fortunes and image.

Jurgensen achieved legendary status through strength and pinpoint accuracy in passing. Reluctantly forced into retirement in 1975 at age 41, he had logged more than 32,000 yards in passing, 255 touchdowns and an impressive 57% pass completion rate.

In retirement, Jurgensen began an enduring sports casting career, first with CBS, and since 1980 for Redskins Radio. He was inducted into the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame in 1971 and the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1983.

Other related resources:

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.


Connie Gay, Country Music Entrepreneur and Starmaker

This Day in North Carolina History - Sat, 08/22/2015 - 06:30

Image from the Wendell Historical Society.

On August 22, 1914, Country Music Association founder Connie Barriot Gay was born in Lizard Lick in rural Wake County.

After working on his family’s tobacco farm as a youth, Gay become an agricultural extension agent. That job led him into radio broadcasting in the 1940s when he took over the Farm Security Administration’s National Farm and Home Hour.

Gay’s interest in radio and music grew, and in 1946, he approached the program director of an Arlington, Virginia, radio station about starting a country music show called “Town and Country.” Through the show, Gay polished the image of what had been known as “hillbilly music” and he is credited with coining the term “country music”.

After his radio career ended, Gay went on to be a prime mover and shaker in the growth of the country music industry. Many of the shows he produced sold out to thousands of fans. He teamed up with the “Grand Ole Opry” for several years, planning and promoting shows for radio, the stage and TV, and in the process, discovering Patsy Cline and Jimmy Dean.

After a brief hiatus to address his alcoholism, Gay returned to the public scene to found the Country Music Association and the Country Music Foundation. By 1980, he had earned a spot in the Country Music Hall of Fame.

He died in 1989, leaving a star-studded legacy behind.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day subscribe by email using the box on the right and follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest.


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